Britain Adds Funds to Repurpose ESA ATV as Orion Service Module

ATV
European Space Agency (ESA) Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV)
Image Credit: ESA / CNES / Arianespace / Photo optique video du CSG

The European Space Agency (ESA) announced they will inform NASA they are ready to build an ATV derived Service Module for Orion, to be ready for the first launch of the Space Launch System (SLS) in 2017. The announcement came after the UK stepped up with additional funding, marking the country’s first real human Beyond Earth Orbit (BEO) commitment.

Edoardo Amaldi Resuppy Mission to the ISS

ATV 3
ATV-3 Inside Fairing
Image Credit: ESA

Previously delayed, the European Space Agency is ready to launch the Edoardo Amaldi this evening. The mission is to provide supplies to the International Space Station, including a spare Fluids Control Pump Assembly (FCPA). This is a critical component on the ISS used to recycle urine into drinkable water and the spare is going up with ATV-3.

Following ESA’s formal Launch Readiness Review on Monday, which revealed no problems with the vessel, the launch was officially set for Friday 23 March at 0434 UTC. This is Thursday evening at 9:34 PM Phoenix time, tonight.

On Wednesday, Ariane and ATV Edoardo Amaldi were rolled out to the launch pad in Kourou, French Guiana. The total vehicle mass is 777 tonnes –the heaviest ever for an Ariane. This ATV is also the rocket’s heaviest payload so far.

As the launch countdown progresses, we will add updates and images from Kourou. Live video from Arianespace can be seen here.

At the moment, it is 3:34 PM in Phoenix, and we are six hours from launch.

The Ariane 5 carrying ATV-3 rolled out to the launch pad yesterday, Wednesday.

Rollout
Rollout Wednesday
Image Credit: ESA TV

Rollout
Rollout Wednesday
Image Credit: ESA TV

With four hours until launch, there are light rain showers. The temperature is 77° Fahrenheit. Thunderstorms are predicted for later tonight with 50% chance of rain.

One hour to launch.

At 9:16 PM Phoenix time, we are less than 20 minutes from the launch of the Edoardo Amaldi. All systems are currently green. This is the 65th Ariane 5

NASA TV is also covering the launch live.

At T-minus 7 minutes we are moving into automatic computer operations. Any operational problem would require recycling to T-minus 7.

T-minus 2 minutes, and weather is good, synchronized sequence is running.

Launch and everything looks good at the moment.

At three (3:00) minutes into the launch, the boosters have separated, and now we have fairing separation.

T-minus 14
T-minus 14
Image Credit: NASA TV

T-minus 9
T-minus 9
Image Credit: NASA TV

Launch
Launch of ATV-3
Image Credit: NASA TV

Downrange
Ariane 5 Downrange
Image Credit: NASA TV

We now have Main Engine Cutoff. Stage Separation and second stage burn.

At twelve minutes into the flight, all systems are performing nominally.

At 18 minutes into the mission, ATV-3 is at altitude of 147.4 kilometers, and a velocity of 7.56 km/sec/

T+18
18 minutes into the mission
Image Credit: NASA TV

For die hard fans of the launch sequence and flight times, here is the ESA time-line for the Edoardo Amaldi Mission:

  • –11 hr 30 mn Start of final countdown
  • –4 hr 50 mn Start of filling of main cryogenic stage with liquid oxygen and hydrogen
  • –1 hr 10 mn Check of connections between launcher and telemetry, tracking and command systems
  • –7 min 00 sec ‘All systems go’ report at Launch Control Centre, allowing start of synchronised sequence
  • –1 min 00 sec Switch to onboard power
  • –04 sec Onboard systems take over
  • –03 sec Unlocking of guidance systems to flight mode
  • H0 Ignition of the Ariane 5 main stage engine
  • +7.0 sec Ignition of solid boosters
  • +7.3 sec Liftoff
  • +17.1 sec Beginning of roll manoeuvre
  • +2 min 22 sec Booster separation
  • +3 min 26 sec Fairing jettison
  • +8 min 54 sec End of main engine firing
  • +9 min 00 sec Upper stage separation
  • +9 min 07 sec Beginning of upper stage first burn
  • +17 min 18 sec End of upper stage first burn
  • +59 min 23 sec Beginning of upper stage second burn
  • +59 min 51 sec End of upper stage second burn
  • +1 hr 3 min 50 sec ATV separation
  • +1 hr 35 min 30 sec ATV solar array deployment complete

At the moment, all systems are green and ATV-3 is set to automatically dock with the Station’s Russian Zvezda module during the night of 28–29 March.

European Space Agency 30 Days from ATV Resupply Mission

ATV 3
Loading Cargo Aboard ATV 3 – Edoardo Amaldi
Image Credit: ESA / CNES / Arianespace / Optique Video du CSG–S. Martin 2011

The European Space Agency’s Edoardo Amaldi mission to the International Space Station is scheduled for 1000 UTC on 9 March 2012. It is scheduled to dock with the ISS at 0138 UTC on 19 March, and stay attached until the end of August, when it will detach and de-orbit with tons of garbage and burn up in the atmosphere.

This is the third mission by ESA to the ISS and will carry almost six tons of cargo:

  • two tons of dry cargo
  • 285 kg of water
  • more than three tons of propellants

ATV 3
Assembled ATV 3 Spacecraft
Image Credit: ESA / CNES / Arianespace / Optique Video du CSG – J.M. Guillon

Progress

Progress at ISS
Image Credit: NASA

With the extension of the lifetime of the International Space Station to 2020, and perhaps beyond, the maintenance and resupply of the station becomes critical. This is the third in a series examining the international effort to maintain a robust human mission on the ISS.

The Russian resupply vessel Progress M-09M (P41) docked with the Pirs module of the International Space Station (ISS) on 30 January 2011. It is the second of three resupply spacecraft that will arrive in close succession early in 2011.

Previously, the Japanese HTV2 cargo vessel “Kounotori” docked with the Harmony module on the International Space Station on 27 January 2011. Progress M-07M (P39) undocked from the Zvezda module on the ISS on Sunday 20th February at 1:12 PM GMT, to make way for the European Space Agency’s “Johaness Kepler” ATV-2 resupply mission, which launched on 16 February 2011, and is expected to dock on 24 February.

During the undocking, Russian thrusters were in control of the station’s attitude control. US Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) resumed control of the ISS later on Sunday. Following the undocking, 39P was commanded to conduct it’s de-orbit burn for a destructive re-entry over the Pacific Ocean at 4:12 PM GMT on Sunday.

On 25 February, STS-133 Discovery is expected to launch and dock two days later with the ISS. Kounotori will be moved to the top of the Harmony module (facing away from Earth) and Discovery will dock at the port facing Earth.

Progress M
Cross Section of the Progress M Spacecraft
Image Credit: RKK Energia

Progress M-09M will supply 2,666 kilograms (5,880 lb) of cargo to the space station, including:

  • 1,444 kilograms (3,180 lb) of dry cargo
  • 752 kilograms (1,660 lb) of propellant
  • 50 kilograms (110 lb) of oxygen
  • 420 kilograms (930 lb) of water

ATV-2 Johannes Kepler


Keeping the International Space Station (ISS) supplied will become an increasing challenge with the retirement of the US Space Shuttle in 2011. This is the first in a series to look at how the ISS will be serviced for the next five or six years.

The Japanese were schedule to launch their second H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV-2) resupply mission today, 20 January, but weather has caused the mission to be rescheduled for a possible launch on Saturday.

The Russians fly their Progress spacecraft on resupply missions, and the next one is scheduled for 28 January.


Johannes Kepler ATV-2
ATV-2 Johannes Kepler
Image Credit:
European Space Agency (ESA)

The European Space Agency (ESA) has flown their Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-1 or Jules Verne) to the ISS once before on 9 March 2008, and their next launch is coming up on 15 February 2011.

On the commercial side, Space X has successfully orbited their Dragon spacecraft and returned to Earth. Their next test flight is penciled in for July and the first resupply mission is penciled in for December.

And Orbital Sciences Corporation has their first cargo delivery test of its Cygnus spacecraft scheduled for December 2011.

That summarizes the partners working to support the International Space Station.

Here is a more detailed look at the European Space Agency’s ATV system.


The 20 ton Johannes Kepler ATV has a cargo capacity of up to 7 metric tons. The composition of this load can vary depending on the mission:

  • 1.5 to 5.5 metric tons of freight and supplies (food, research instruments, tools, etc.)
  • up to 840 kilograms of drinking water
  • up to 100 kilograms of gases (air, oxygen and nitrogen)
  • up to four metric tons of fuel for orbit correction and up to 860 kilograms of propellant to refuel the space station.

The spacecraft is compose of two main sections. The first is the ATV Service Module (below, left), which is not pressurized, includes propulsion systems, electrical power, computers, communications and most of the avionics. The ATV uses four main engines and 28 small thrusters to control the navigation of the spacecraft. Four solar panels are deployed after launch and supply 4800 Watts of power to the batteries and the electrical systems.

The second component is the Integrated Cargo Carrier (below, right). The large section in the front is pressurized and comprises about 90% of the cargo volume. It handles all the dry cargo, including the racks on each side. The inhabitants of the International Space Station access this area through the hatch in the Russian docking system.


Service Module
ATV Service Module & Four Main Engines
Image Credit: ESA

Service Module
Cutaway of ATV Cargo Carrier
Image Credit: ESA


The Equipped External Bay of the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) holds 22 spherical tanks of different sizes and colors (below, left). These tanks are used to re-supply the Station with propellant for the International Space Station propulsion system, various gases (air, oxygen, and nitrogen) and water for the crew.

The contents of these tanks are delivered to the Station through dedicated connections, or through manually operated hoses.


Service Module
ATV Liquid Resupply Tanks
Image Credit: ESA

Docking Module
Russian Docking Module
Image Credit: ESA


The ATV uses the Russian-made docking equipment sensors to perform the approach and docking sequence (above, right). The procedure is the same as with the Soyuz manned capsules and the Progress resupply spacecraft.

The Russian docking system enables physical, electrical and propellant connections with the Station. Access to the ICC is through the Russian hatch.

Once the ATV is securely docked, the crew can enter the cargo section and remove the payload, which usually includes maintenance supplies, science hardware, parcels of fresh food, mail and family tapes or DVDs.

The Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey – 2012 to 2021

by Dave Fischer

The National Research Council has released Its sixth decadal survey of astronomy and astrophysics. The plan focuses on three science objectives:

  • The exploration of the origins of the universe
  • The search for habitable planets outside our solar system
  • The use of astronomical observations to investigate fundamental physics.

The report addresses large, medium, and small activities in these fields. It surveys the existing facilities and the new facilities that would be needed, both ground based and space based. It looks at the known science objectives and where new discoveries might be made. And it looks at the promise of the proposals and the risks associated with each.

The large scale space-based projects are:

  • 1. Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST)
  • 2. Explorer Program Augmentation
  • 3. Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA)
  • 4. International X-ray Observatory (IXO)

WFIRST, the near infrared wide-field telescope, is intended to explore Dark Energy and Exoplanet statistics as well as support guest survey investigations.

The Explorer Program is ongoing and funds rapid, targeted projects that deliver a high science return. Past projects include WMAP, Swift, GALEX and WISE.

LISA will exploit the new field of astronomy using long wavelength gravitational radiation measured by three spacecraft 5 million kilometers apart.

IXO is a large area, high spectral resolution x-ray observatory to explore hottest regions in the universe, including clusters of galaxies, the intergalactic medium, and black hole accretion disks.

The medium scale space-based projects are:

  • 1. New Worlds Technology Development Program
  • 2. Inflation Technology Development Program

The New Worlds technology development program is a research program to obtain preliminary observations in order to study nearby habitable planets. Included is technology development in order to make an informed decision in the second half of this decade on a flagship mission.

The Inflation Technology development program will use ground based microwave background telescopes to examine “B-mode polarization.” This is a sensitive signature of processes thought to have occurred during the earliest moments of the universe. If a signal is seen, then a space-based mission with at least ten times greater sensitivity is warranted and associated technology development would be needed.

There are four large scale ground-based projects recommended, and prioritized as follows:

  • 1. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)
  • 2. Mid-Scale Innovations Program
  • 3. Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope (GSMT)
  • 4. Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope Array (ACTA)

The LSST project would address research such as dark energy using gravitational lensing, dark matter, Near-Earth Kuiper-belt objects, the Solar neighborhood, and transient phenomena such as gamma-ray bursts, variable stars, and supernova.

The mid-scale program would fund annual proposals to compete for funding, of which around 7 proposals would be chosen during the decade.

The Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope project suggests that NSF chose one of the two current 30 meter telescope projects (The Giant Magellan Telescope in Chile or the Thirty Meter Telescope in Hawaii) and invest in a quarter share in order to provide access for the entire US community.

The report proposes that the team responsible for the proposed US Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) collaborate as a minor partner with the European Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA).

There is one medium scale ground-based program that was recommended by the NRC Decadal Survey:

  • 1. Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope (CCAT)

This 25 meter wide-field sub-millimeter telescope would work in conjunction with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile.

The small scale investment recommendations are:

  • Target work-force development (TSIP, Sub-orbital, AAG, ATP)
  • Address changing role of computation and theory (TCN)
  • Support current/upcoming facilities (Gemini, Lab Astro, TCN)
  • Develop technology for the future (NSF ATI, NASA Tech. Dev.)

Other documentation:

NASA press release

Preliminary Report

NRC committee reports.

Town Hall Slides (pdf).