Interview of Mark Hopkins, Chair of the NSS Executive Committee

Mark Hopkins, Chair of the NSS Executive Committee, was interviewed on the subject of interstellar space settlement on the program “Contours” on FM radio station WNTI on May 28. WNTI  is a member supported public radio station providing non-commercial FM broadcast service for northern New Jersey and northeast Pennsylvania, operated by Centenary College in Hackettstown, NJ. The 21-minute interview was conducted by Dr. Karl Hricko and is posted here with permission.

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International Lunar Decade Declaration Unveiled at National Space Society Conference

June 1, 2015 – Toronto, Canada

The National Space Society has released an International Lunar Decade Declaration in support of an international campaign to return to the Moon. The campaign will continue its scientific exploration, begin a program of development to learn how to use the Moon’s resources for the benefit of the Earth, and lay the foundations to advance further to Mars and the asteroids.

The 14 largest space agencies currently share their plans and look for collaborative opportunities to explore space. They have created an International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG – as a forum for these discussions. This is a voluntary and non-binding process for all of the member countries. Each country decides what interests and resources may be committed to projects of common interest. These countries have published a Global Exploration Roadmap, which describes the activities and missions that member countries are planning in low Earth orbit and beyond.

The International Lunar Decade Declaration calls for member countries of the ISECG to develop a number of projects that would establish permanent human presence on the surface of the Moon. This way, member countries will learn to live and work on another planet and lay the foundations for further human exploration and presence on Mars and the asteroids.

These International Lunar Decade projects can be realized in a ten-year campaign beginning in 2017. This can occur if the largest space-faring countries collaborate to share the risks, costs, and benefits of exploration and economic development in space. This requires the cooperative context of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group.

The National Space Society conducted a Return to the Moon – International Lunar Decade Workshop at the International Space Development Conference®, which was held in Toronto, Canada, May 22-24.

A copy of the NSS International Lunar Decade Declaration can be found at

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XCOR Aerospace Lynx spacecraft featured on ABC News

From ABC World News Tonight, May 21, 2015

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Dr. Kip Thorne, Renowned Physicist and Executive Producer of film Interstellar, to Speak at International Space Development Conference®

Conference convenes May 20-24 in downtown Toronto

The National Space Society’s 34th Annual International Space Development Conference (ISDC)®, being held next week in Toronto, Canada, features a presentation by famed physicist and author Dr. Kip Thorne. The National Space Society will present the 2015 Space Pioneer Award for Mass Media to Dr. Thorne at the ISDC Gala Dinner on Saturday, May 23, beginning at 7:00 p.m. EDT.

The award recognizes individuals whose accomplishments have helped open the space frontier and whose work has contributed significantly to the endeavor of developing a spacefaring civilization beyond Earth.

Dr. Thorne will also give a presentation entitled “The Science of Interstellar” on Saturday at 3:30 p.m. EDT. Among those attending the presentation will be over 300 award-winning students from around the world who are participants in the NSS/NASA Ames Space Settlement Design Competition. Students from last year’s competition appeared in Interstellar’s companion series The Science of Interstellar. Video clip:

Kip ThorneDr. Thorne is a theoretical physicist and an author known for his contributions in gravitational physics and astrophysics. He was the Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics at the California Institute of Technology from 1977 to 2009 and is considered one of the world’s leading experts on the astrophysical implications of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. In 2009, he left Caltech to ramp up a new career in writing, movies, and continued scientific research. Along with his distinguished career as a theoretical physicist, Dr. Thorne was an executive producer and scientific consultant on the 2014 Academy Award-winning film Interstellar, which was inspired by his work.

ISDC is the yearly conference of the National Space Society, a nonprofit organization that has hosted the gathering since 1982. The event is set for May 20-24, 2015 at the downtown Hyatt Regency in Toronto, Canada. The conference brings together leading managers, engineers, scientists, educators, and business people from civilian, military, commercial, entrepreneurial, and grassroots advocacy space sectors. The Canadian Space Commerce Association is hosting this year’s ISDC.

Online registration for the 34th Annual International Space Development Conference is currently open with a variety of options, from single day registration passes to full conference registration with meals. Discounts are provided for youth, full-time students, seniors, and members of the National Space Society and its affiliates.

For more information, visit

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Open Letter to the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology

Open Letter to the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology:

NSS Urges Passage of the “Spurring Private Aerospace Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship Act of 2015” (SPACE Act of 2015)

The Washington DC-based National Space Society (NSS) has been a consistent supporter of the rapidly expanding commercial space sector and the ISS. NSS thanks the House leadership, and in particular Representatives McCarthy, Smith, and Palazzo of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology for developing a strong pro-commercial space bill. NSS urges that the House approve the SPACE Act of 2015 with at least the following provisions, all of which are critical to the future growth of this sector:

  • Extension of the launch liability coverage period from 2016 to 2023.
  • Amends current law to allow commercial space launch companies to both test new vehicles and operate existing vehicles at the same time. An NSS position paper that addresses this and related issues can be found at:
  • Extends the learning period for commercial spaceflight from 2015 until December 31, 2023, an eight year extension. NSS has previously taken the position that the learning period should be extended by 8 years in the same document.

At the current time, there is no mention of the operating life extension of the ISS in the SPACE Act draft. NSS strongly urges modifying the SPACE Act to amend the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 to extend the operating life of the ISS to the year 2024. NSS strongly supports this extension, and has expressed this position in the document cited above and

NSS believes that NASA needs to support a seamless transition from the current ISS to a future in which the ISS National laboratory continues to operate with NASA as an anchor tenant in multiple commercially owned and operated space stations. A position paper on this topic can be found at:

NSS supports the Office of Space Commerce Act of 2015. 

The purpose of this Act is to rename the current Office of Space Commercialization, clarify its purpose, and have the newly renamed department provide support to Federal Government organizations working on Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing policy, including the National Coordination Office for Space-Based Position, Navigation, and Timing.

NSS supports the general direction of the Space Resource Exploration and Utilization Act of 2015 (HR 1508). 

The purpose of this Act is to secure the property rights to materials mined from asteroids by US companies. NSS strongly supports the intent of this Act, and believes that the rights of companies and individuals to own materials mined from asteroids is important to moving toward space development and settlement. However, some terms in the Act, including “asteroid” and “harmful interference,” remain undefined. We also believe that the definition of “space resource” may need to be narrowed to avoid conflicts with existing legal regimes. We suggest that the House seek further input from space legal experts to ensure that this well-intentioned Bill is on the correct course.

Best Regards,

Dale Skran
Executive Vice President, NSS
Chair, NSS Policy Committee
Member, NSS Board of Directors

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International and U.S. Students and Teachers Headed to Toronto for 34th Annual International Space Development Conference®

Students competed in prestigious NSS-NASA Ames Space Settlement Design Contest – Video narrated by Matthew McConaughey

Hundreds of students and teachers from the United States and countries across the globe will converge in Toronto this month for the National Space Society’s (NSS) 34th annual International Space Development Conference (ISDC)® to celebrate and engage people in the goal of space settlement. The event is set for May 20-24, 2015 at the downtown Hyatt Regency in Toronto, Canada.

Students attending the conference, grades 6-12, will be sharing their imaginative ideas about how people will be living and working in space. They are attending the conference as a result of their participation in this year’s Space Settlement Design Contest, co-sponsored by the National Space Society and NASA Ames Research Center. The contest challenges students to design a space settlement, which must realistically address concerns such as atmosphere, food, gravity, radiation shielding, energy production, and recreation for human space colonists.

Students at last year’s ISDC were filmed and appeared in the movie Interstellar‘s companion series The Science of Interstellar (video clip above). Students this year will meet Interstellar‘s science advisor and world renowned physicist Kip Thorne, who will be receiving this year’s prestigious NSS Pioneer Award for Mass Media.

“The students attending the ISDC are so passionate and excited to be there to share their ideas and projects. There is so much to learn from them, their cultures, and creative insights,” said Lynne F. Zielinski, NSS Vice President of Public Affairs and chair of NSS’ Education and Outreach Committee. “We are always dazzled by their insightful and futuristic designs. Their enthusiasm is infectious and gives us all hope that we will soon be living and working in space ourselves. These students are the ones to take us there.”

Alexander C. Reeves

Alexander C. Reeves, Contest Grand Prize Winner

Each year, NSS invites contest participants to attend the organization’s ISDC. Throughout the conference, students will provide oral presentations about their space settlement designs, along with colorful artwork related to the contest. The NSS-NASA Ames Space Settlement Design Competition’s Grand Prize winner, Alexander C. Reeves of Ann Arbor, Michigan, will receive the $5,000 NSS Bruce M. Clark, Jr. Memorial Scholarship.

Alexander and his teacher, Dr. Deano Smith from Greenhills School, will be in attendance at ISDC. Reeves created The Freyr Project, an orbital settlement that provides a home and societal structure for 20,000 individuals and is designed to be part of a pseudo-modular system for long-term space settlement. The 247-page report is available here:

This year’s competition received 994 entries from 3,007 students sponsored by 380 teachers. Entries came from 21 countries: Bulgaria, Canada, China, Czech Republic, India, Ireland, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Montenegro, Nepal, Pakistan, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Romania, Serbia, Sri Lanka, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, and Uruguay.

ISDC is the yearly conference of the National Space Society, a non-profit organization that has hosted the gathering since 1982. The event brings together leading managers, engineers, scientists, educators, and business people from civilian, military, commercial, entrepreneurial, and grassroots advocacy space sectors. The Canadian Space Commerce Association is hosting ISDC 2015.

Online registration is currently open with a variety of options, from single-day registration passes to full conference registration with meals. Discounts are provided for youth, full-time students, seniors, and members of the National Space Society and its affiliates. This year, local Toronto and Ontario residents also receive a substantial discount.

“We would like to invite local attendees interested in space to the annual conference of the world’s premier space public interest group,” stated Aggie Kobrin, the conference organizer and NSS board member. “Kids today are somewhat lacking in inspiration to pursue STEM fields and this conference is making giant strides to solve this problem.”

For more information, visit

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NSS Applauds Northrop Grumman/Caltech Push Toward Space Solar Power

The National Space Society (NSS) applauds a recent Northrop Grumman announcement that it is providing up to $17.5 million to an initiative with the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) for the development of Space Solar Power (SSP). SSP will be a major focus at NSS’s annual International Space Development Conference (ISDC)® in Toronto on May 20-24 (

NSS Executive Vice-President Dale Skran said, “We are delighted to see Northrop Grumman and Caltech taking a significant step toward creating a future that includes space solar power, a major step in the settlement of space. At a time when the U.S. Government has virtually abandoned SSP research it is encouraging to see private industry and universities stepping forward to fill the gap.”

Establishment of an operational space-based solar power system transmitting the sun’s energy to Earth is Milestone 8 in the NSS Space Settlement Roadmap ( SSP could be a particularly attractive way to bring electricity to the 1.3 billion people in developing countries that don’t have electricity due to a lack of both power generation and transmission infrastructure.

Construction of significant numbers of Solar Power Satellites will create a large new market for transportation to orbit, greatly enhancing current trends toward lower launch costs and reusable rockets. This scenario establishes the groundwork for affordable space settlement – on the Moon, on Mars, among the asteroids, and in Free Space. A possible side-benefit of this project would be improved power sources for “electric” (ion/plasma) rockets, currently planned by NASA to play a key role in trips to Mars and other destinations.

The Northrop Grumman/Caltech initiative will focus on three areas: high-efficiency ultra-light photovoltaics, ultra-light deployable space structures, and phased-array power transmission. Up to 50 students, post-docs, and senior researchers will eventually join the team, who will use specialized laboratories constructed for the initiative.

A good place to find an overview of the current state of SSP work is the NSS Space Solar Power home page at A wide variety of SSP material can be found there, ranging from reviews of recent books like The Case for Space Solar Power by NSS Policy Committee member John Mankins, to the world’s largest library of Space Solar Power free downloadable PDF books and reports.

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Alliance Focused on Space Development, not the Destination

Al Globus, a member of the NSS Board of Directors as well as an NSS representative on the Alliance for Space Development Board of Directors, had the following letter published in Space News on April 13:

A recent op-ed by Paul Brower, “Why the U.S. Gave Up on the Moon” [Commentary, March 30, page 19], criticizes the Alliance for Space Development for not specifically advocating lunar settlement this year. Note that the Alliance is firmly focused on the development that must precede a successful settlement effort regardless of the location — the Moon, Mars, free space or asteroids. To this end, the Alliance’s 2015 goals are:

  • Incorporation of space development and settlement into the NASA Space Act.
  • Initiatives to improve launch, including a CATS (Cheap Access to Space) prize.
  • Full support of the commercial crew program.
  • Gapless transition from the International Space Station to private stations with NASA support.

By development we mean commercial, private, eventually self-sustaining industrialization of space. Successful development includes comsats and remote sensing, but neither of these involves life support. By settlement we mean places for people to live out their lives and raise their children. We’re not talking about flags and footprint missions or bases to do science. There’s nothing wrong with these activities, but they are not the focus of the alliance. We’re not looking to visit; we’re going into space to stay. This requires a strong, self-sustaining industrial infrastructure that is not dependent on the political winds of the moment, but rather on concrete benefits to large numbers of customers.

Note that the Alliance’s initial (2015) goals place a heavy emphasis on low-cost Earth-to-space transportation and innovative ways to develop it. To settle the Moon, or anywhere else, requires much lower launch costs than we have today. It is by far the most important single step for all space settlement and development, and is extremely important for all other space activities.

We need to transform how we do spaceflight — not just new rockets or spaceships, but more robust methods, economic models, value extraction and compelling justifications. That is why the Alliance is starting with these goals. We have proven that we can plant a flag with a heroic effort, but we can’t stay without affordable day-to-day logistical support and industrial capabilities in space. That is one of the goals of the gapless transition from the ISS to commercial space stations.

Every goal the Alliance supports is essential for settling the Moon, free space, Mars, asteroids and other solar system bodies. We each have our favorite location for the first space settlement (mine is free space), and the Alliance supports them all. The alliance does, and will, support a permanent return to the Moon, as well as to the other destinations, provided that we found these goals on clear and convincing answers to “why” and “how.”

In conclusion, as my colleague, Alliance board member Aaron Oesterle, wrote in an op-ed on March 14 [“We Need To Expand the Conversation About Space,” Commentary, page 19], the key isn’t which destination; the key is developing a self-sustaining, expanding private commercial and industrial capacity in space.

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Northrop Grumman and Caltech begin Space Solar Power Initiative

PASADENA, Calif. – April 20, 2015 – Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE:NOC) has signed a sponsored research agreement with the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) for the development of the Space Solar Power Initiative (SSPI). Under the terms of the agreement, Northrop Grumman will provide up to $17.5 million to the initiative over three years.

Working together, the team will develop the scientific and technological innovations necessary to enable a space-based solar power system capable of generating electric power at cost parity with grid-connected fossil fuel power plants. SSPI responds to the engineering challenge of providing a cost-competitive source of sustainable energy. SSPI will develop technologies in three areas: high-efficiency ultralight photovoltaics; ultralight deployable space structures; and phased array and power transmission.


Northrop Grumman’s Joseph Ensor (left) and Caltech’s Ares Rosakis (right) shake hands as part of the recent SSPI commemoration event held at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

SSPI was conceived by three principal investigators from Caltech’s Division of Engineering and Applied Science (EAS) who jointly lead the initiative:

  • Harry A. Atwater, Jr., Howard Hughes Professor of Applied Physics and Materials Science, Director of the Resnick Sustainability Institute;
  • Ali Hajimiri, Thomas G. Myers Professor of Electrical Engineering and Medical Engineering; and
  • Sergio Pellegrino, Joyce and Kent Kresa Professor of Aeronautics, Professor of Civil Engineering and Jet Propulsion Laboratory Senior Research Scientist.

Atwater, Hajimiri and Pellegrino have assembled a team of students, postdoctoral scholars, and senior researchers that will eventually exceed 50 members. EAS is building specialized laboratory facilities to support this team. Northrop Grumman engineers and scientists will collaborate with the team at Caltech to develop solutions, build prototypes and obtain experimental and numerical validation of concepts that could allow development to proceed toward eventual implementation.

“By working together with Caltech, Northrop Grumman extends its long heritage of innovation in space-based technologies and mission solutions,” said Joseph Ensor, vice president and general manager, Space Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) Systems, Northrop Grumman. “The potential breakthroughs from this research could have extensive applications across a number of related power use challenges.”

“This initiative is a great example of how Caltech engineers are working at the leading edges of fundamental science to invent the technologies of the future,” said Ares Rosakis, Otis Booth Leadership Chair of the Caltech Division of Engineering and Applied Science and the Theodore von Kármán Professor of Aeronautics and Professor of Mechanical Engineering. “The Space Solar Power Initiative brings together electrical engineers, applied physicists, and aerospace engineers in the type of profound interdisciplinary collaboration that is seamlessly enhanced at a small place like Caltech. I believe it also demonstrates the value of industry and academic partnerships. We are working on extremely difficult problems that could eventually provide the foundations for new industries.”

Caltech and Northrop Grumman have a long history of collaboration, dating back decades to joint work between Professor Theodore von Kármán and Jack Northrop. Von Kármán was a scientist and engineer who directed Caltech’s Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory during the 1930s and later co-founded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Northrop was an aviation pioneer who in 1939 founded the Northrop Corporation, one of the legacy companies that united to become Northrop Grumman. This unique $17.5 million initiative is one of the largest corporate sponsored research projects Caltech has undertaken in recent years.

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We are making progress…

NSS Executive Vice President Dale Skran writes:

In the current April 20-26 print issue of Bloomberg Businessweek, one of the top three business magazines in the country (along with Fortune and Forbes), the lead editorial is about when to get into the asteroid market. You can read it yourself at:

The article is respectful and constructive, offering a serious proposal on how to handle asteroid mining rights. It reminds me quite a bit of the sort of articles you might see in the L5 News during the late 70s and early 80s.

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