National Space Society Congratulates Representative Jim Bridenstine on his Approval as NASA Administrator

The National Space Society (NSS) congratulates Representative Jim Bridenstine (R-OK-1) on his confirmation by the Senate to be the next NASA Administrator.

“NSS looks forward to working with Administrator Bridenstine to further the development and settlement of space,” said Dale Skran, the current NSS Executive Vice President and Chair of the NSS Policy Committee. “This has been a long and difficult approval process, but with today’s Senate vote NASA can move forward, ending a long period of leadership drift.”

Representative Bridenstine brings to his new job both political and aerospace experience. A three term member of Congress, Bridenstine served as a naval aviator from 1998-2007, and in the Naval Reserve 2010-2015, mainly flying the E-2C Hawkeye. Additionally, Bridenstine was the Executive Director of the Tulsa Air and Space Museum & Planetarium. Bridenstine has degrees from Rice University (triple major in Economics, Psychology, and Business), and an MBA from Cornell.

“Representative Bridenstine is one of a growing group in Congress that fully appreciates the importance of space commerce and space resources to the human future,” said NSS Senior Vice President Bruce Pittman. “We look forward with great anticipation to working with Administrator Bridenstine to lead America back to the Moon and to develop a thriving economy in space.”

Mark Hopkins, the Chair of the NSS Executive Committee, added, “Some may be concerned that Representative Bridenstine is not an astronaut or scientist. We should all recall that one of the greatest NASA administrators, Jim Webb, was a lawyer.”

National Space Society Honors JPL’s Voyager Team: “Humans have never before reached so far”

For 40 years, two small spacecraft launched in 1977 have sped past the planets in our solar system and beyond, carrying humanity’s messages etched on gold disks. Their journey into the depths of interstellar space will continue indefinitely.

To honor this unprecedented achievement, the National Space Society (NSS) has announced that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory team that designed, built and operated the Voyager spacecraft has been named the 2018 recipient of NSS’ Space Pioneer Award for Science and Engineering.

 

NSS Senior Operating Officer Bruce Pittman said, “The two Voyager spacecraft, launched over 40 years ago, sent back amazing pictures of the outer solar system, including Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and the Saturnian moon Titan, bringing the majestic beauty of the outer solar system to people around the world.” Pittman continued, “The fact that the Voyager spacecraft are still operational and sending back useful data is a great testament to the talent of the hundreds of scientists and engineers who worked so hard to make this incredible mission possible.” This National Space Society award recognizes the JPL team for their amazing scientific and engineering achievements.

The prestigious award will be presented to Dr. Michael Watkins, Director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, at the Society’s 37th annual International Space Development Conference (ISDC®), to be held at the Sheraton Gateway Los Angeles Hotel from May 24-27, 2018. NSS invites the public to come meet, interact and learn from Dr. Watkins and attend his award ceremony.

For more information, see: isdc2018.nss.org

Past recipients of the Space Pioneer Award include: Elon Musk, Ray Bradbury, Robert Bigelow, Apollo Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, Dr. Michael Griffin, the Rosetta Mission Team, the Kepler-K2 Team, and the New Horizons Mission Team.

The National Space Society was formed by a merger of the National Space Institute, founded in 1974 by NASA’s Wernher von Braun, father of the Saturn V rocket, and the L5 Society, founded in 1975, inspired by the pioneering work of Princeton physicist Gerard K. O’Neill.

The National Space Society Honors Jeff Bezos with the Gerard K. O’Neill Memorial Award

The National Space Society has named Jeff Bezos its 2018 recipient of the prestigious Gerard K. O’Neill Memorial Award for Space Settlement Advocacy to be awarded at the Society’s yearly conference in May 2018.

“Jeff Bezos has articulated exactly what our thousands of supporters work toward at the National Space Society,” said Mark Hopkins, Chairman of the NSS Executive Committee. “Few have done so much to advance space development and this award recognizes Bezos’ extraordinary advocacy and record of accomplishment.”

Bezos is the Founder and CEO of Amazon, as well as the Founder of aerospace company Blue Origin. Blue Origin is focused on building reusable launch systems to lower the cost of access to space. New Shepard, named after Alan Shepard, will take astronauts to the edge of space on a thrilling 11-minute flight. New Glenn, named after John Glenn, will be capable of taking people and large payloads to earth orbit and beyond. Blue Origin is also developing liquid rocket engines.

Bruce Pittman, NSS Chief Operating Officer, said, “As the founder of space development company Blue Origin, Jeff Bezos has both advanced and accelerated our progress and has been a tireless advocate for new and innovative approaches. As such, he personifies the very best in the field of space development and joins a distinguished list of previous recipients.”

The award will be presented to Jeff Bezos on Friday, May 25 at the NSS’s 37th annual International Space Development Conference® (ISDC®) in Los Angeles. The conference runs from May 24-27 and features leaders from space science, engineering, advocacy and government fields who are developing new ways to develop, live and prosper in space and on other worlds.

The Gerard K. O’Neill Memorial Award is given at infrequent intervals to exceptional individuals, and has in the past recognized such leaders in space exploration and development as physicist Freeman Dyson and Apollo 17 astronaut and geologist Harrison Schmitt. The granting of the award to Jeff Bezos continues this tradition of recognizing exemplary achievement.

For more information, see: isdc2018.nss.org.

The National Space Society was formed by a merger of the National Space Institute, founded in 1974 by NASA’s Wernher von Braun, father of the Saturn V rocket, and the L5 Society, founded in 1975, inspired by the pioneering work of Princeton physicist Gerard K. O’Neill.

National Space Society to Present Space Pioneer Award to SETI Astronomer Frank Drake

Dr. Frank Drake is the winner of the National Space Society’s 2018 Space Pioneer Award for Science and Engineering. This award honors the work he has done as a professional astronomer, especially as a radio astronomer, technical advisor for the Golden Record on the Voyager mission, and as a leader in the science-based Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) community.

NSS invites the public to come meet, interact and learn from the awardees and attend their award ceremonies. NSS will present the Space Pioneer Award to Dr. Drake at our annual conference, the 37th International Space Development Conference (ISDC®) to be held in Los Angeles, California, at the Sheraton Gateway Hotel at LAX. The Conference will run from May 24-27, 2018.

About Dr. Frank Drake

Dr. Frank Drake has a huge array of accomplishments, which includes his work at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, JPL, Cornell University, the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (Arecibo), the National Research Council, the University of California at Santa Cruz and other institutions. He was among a group that pushed for the conversion of Arecibo into one of the world’s top and most unique radio astronomy facilities, and served as its director from 1966-1968.

He is a leader in the SETI field, which has now existed for over 55 years and with the SETI institute, which has existed for over 30 years. He pioneered the Drake Equation, which provided a rational and quantifiable way of estimating the number of potential civilizations in our galaxy and elsewhere. More of the terms of that equation are now being solidified as the new exoplanet data streams in and the proven number of roughly Earth-sized planets continues to climb.

He did visionary work 40 years ago with the Voyager missions and as Technical Director of the Golden Record containing Earth’s greatest music, spoken greetings, “Sounds of Earth,” and more than 100 images encoded as audio signals. These were technological feats of their time.

This ‘message’ from Earth was designed to be understandable by extraterrestrials should they encounter the spacecraft which have now traveled beyond our Sun’s heliopause into interstellar space. The newer emphasis on using optical frequencies to look for evidence of artificial signals is opening up a whole new area in radio astronomy and SETI.

He was also one of the creators of the Arecibo Message, a binary encoded image 210 bytes long, which was sent to the globular star cluster M13 in November, 1974 by the Arecibo telescope itself. The message included common scientific information, and some information about Earth and the solar system

About the Space Pioneer Award

NSS Space Pioneer AwardThe Space Pioneer award consists of a silvery pewter Moon globe cast by the Baker Art Foundry in Placerville, California, from a sculpture originally created by Don Davis, the well-known space and astronomical artist. The globe, which represents multiple space mission destinations and goals, sits freely on a brass support with a wooden base and brass plaque as shown at right. The support and base are created by renowned sculptor Michael Hall of the Studio Foundry of Driftwood, TX. NSS has several different categories under which the award is presented each year, starting in 1988. Some of the recent winners of Space Pioneer Awards include Elon Musk, Ray Bradbury, Robert Bigelow, Apollo Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, Dr. Michael Griffin, the Rosetta Mission Team, the Kepler-K2 Team, and the New Horizons Mission Team.

Freeman Dyson, Famed Physicist, Wins the National Space Society’s Prestigious Robert A. Heinlein Memorial Award

National Space Society members have voted to give Freeman Dyson the prestigious Robert A. Heinlein Memorial Award. This award honors the work he has done as a ground-breaking physicist and mathematician, and as a major thought leader in the science and space communities for over half a century.

NSS invites the public to come meet, interact and learn from our awardees and attend their award ceremonies. NSS will present Freeman with the Heinlein Award at their 37th annual International Space Development Conference® (ISDC)® to be held in Los Angeles, California, at the Sheraton Gateway Hotel at LAX. The Conference will run from May 24-27, 2018.

About Freeman Dyson

The Heinlein award recognizes Dyson’s many years of work, both in science and in the public arena, advancing fundamental physics and math, and promoting and explaining the future role of humans in space which NSS hopes will lead to a free spacefaring civilization. This includes his position for many years as President of the Space Studies Institute, founded by space visionary Dr. Gerard K. O’Neill.

Dyson was a leader of the early space age in the 1950s and 60s through his work with Project Orion, a revolutionary space propulsion concept. His numerous ideas and detailed technical work have contributed enormously to space transport, development and settlement. The vision of self-sustaining human settlements in space and on planetary surfaces as part of a free, spacefaring civilization, is at the very heart of the space movement.

Dyson received a BA in mathematics from Trinity College, Cambridge after World War II. He had a post at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton from 1953 to 1994, where he still resides as a professor emeritus. He is best known for his numerous and significant contributions in the fields of physics and mathematics, including support for and practical use of Feynman Diagrams and creating a better understanding of quantum electrodynamics by unifying the three previously existing versions of that theory.

He is also well known for his concept of the so-called “Dyson Sphere” in which an advanced civilization would build many structures around its star to capture most or all of its energy. This concept has been misinterpreted by many to incorrectly imply a solid sphere around a star. He is the author of many popular books on science and ethics including Disturbing the Universe, Imagined Worlds, and The Scientist as Rebel.

His work has helped in understanding the space environment and even the very nature of space-time and matter itself. His life-long rationally-based poking at scientific sacred cows has helped to keep alive the spirit of open discussion within the scientific community. Few have made such rich contributions to these fields.

About the Robert A. Heinlein Award

The Robert A. Heinlein Memorial Award honors those individuals who have made significant, lifetime contributions to the creation of a free spacefaring civilization. The Award is named after author Robert A. Heinlein, widely recognized as the dean of science fiction writers, in memory of him and of his many contributions to the pro-space movement. Heinlein served for about a decade as a director of the L5 Society, predecessor of NSS, and attended ISDC in 1983. NSS members vote to choose who will win this prestigious award which is given every two years.

The award consists of a miniature brass naval cannon mounted on a solid mahogany base with a brass plaque and an inlay of Italian black granite. The barrel is inscribed with one of Heinlein’s favorite acronyms “TANSTAAFL” (There Ain’t No Such Thing As A Free Lunch). The award concept came from one of Heinlein’s classic novels, The Moon is a Harsh Mistress. The cannon represents defiance of conventional wisdom when necessary. In modern terms, this means being able to “think outside of the box.” Previous Heinlein Award Winners are Jerry Pournelle, Elon Musk, Dr. Stephen Hawking, Dr. Peter Diamandis, Burt Rutan, General Chuck Yeager, Capt. James Lovell, Robert Zubrin, Neil Armstrong, Carl Sagan, Dr. Buzz Aldrin, Dr. Robert H. Goddard, Gene Roddenberry, Dr. Wernher von Braun, Sir Arthur C. Clarke, and Dr. Gerard K. O’Neill.

NSS Heinlein Award

The Cassini and Huygens Teams Win the National Space Society’s 2018 Space Pioneer Awards for Science and Engineering

The NASA and European Space Agency Cassini and Huygens Teams are the winners of the National Space Society’s 2018 Space Pioneer Awards for Science and Engineering. Saturn has been revealed to science in great detail at last by the Cassini-Huygens mission. The mission saw the Cassini spacecraft meander through the moons and rings of Saturn for thirteen years, while the Huygens probe made a daring descent through the hazy atmosphere of Titan to soft land on the ice-covered ocean world in January 2005.

NSS invites the public to come meet, interact and learn from the mission teams. NSS will present the Space Pioneer Awards to each team’s representatives at our annual conference, the 2018 International Space Development Conference (the 37th ISDC) to be held in Los Angeles, California, at the Sheraton Gateway Hotel at LAX. The conference will run from May 24-27, 2018.

Saturn is our solar system’s most iconic-looking planet with its vast system of spectacular rings and numerous unique moons. It was shrouded in mystery throughout our history until it was first unveiled by NASA’s Pioneer and Voyager fly-bys.

As the Cassini-Huygens mission has been carried out by two teams over a very long period of time, NSS is pleased to be able to present awards to representatives of both the Cassini Team and the Huygens Team. This award recognizes the massive amount of work carried out by the two teams to propose, design, launch and operate the Cassini and Huygens missions and to receive and analyze the data over many years.

Cassini-Huygens at Saturn and Titan. Illustration: ESA.

About the Mission

The Cassini-Huygens mission was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana – ASI). NASA developed the Cassini Saturn orbiter, ESA developed the Huygens Titan Probe, and ASI, in addition to its contribution to Huygens through ESA, supplied major components to Cassini, including its high gain antenna and parts of several orbiter instruments.The dual-spacecraft mission was launched on Oct 15, 1997, over 20 years ago, and is regarded as one of the most significant space missions in history.

The Cassini spacecraft, with its array of cameras, spectrometers, and in-situ instruments, returned an enormous amount of data and images from Saturn and its surroundings. It thoroughly mapped many of the moons of Saturn. Most notably, Cassini discovered a plume of water vapor and icy particles venting into space from a subsurface ocean within the moon Enceladus. This finding has helped pivot the search for life beyond Earth toward the underground oceans inside a variety of outer solar system objects. The Huygens probe directly studied the atmosphere of Titan during its descent. Its images revealed a rugged landscape with branching drainage channels and possible dry lake bottoms, along with the first images taken from the surface of a world in the outer solar system on January 14, 2005.

Multiple flybys of Titan by Cassini itself have helped to create a global map of the only other world in our solar system with active (methane) rain storms affecting a solid water ice surface. The Cassini spacecraft’s mission ended with an intentional plunge into Saturn on September 15, 2017, one-month short of its 20th launch anniversary.

About the Space Pioneer Award

NSS Space Pioneer AwardThe Space Pioneer award consists of a silvery pewter Moon globe cast by the Baker Art Foundry in Placerville, California, from a sculpture originally created by Don Davis, the well-known space and astronomical artist. The globe, which represents multiple space mission destinations and goals, sits freely on a brass support with a wooden base and brass plaque as shown at right. The support and base are created by renowned sculptor Michael Hall of the Studio Foundry of Driftwood, TX. NSS has several different categories under which the award is presented each year, starting in 1988. Some of the recent winners of Space Pioneer Awards include Elon Musk, Ray Bradbury, Robert Bigelow, Apollo Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, Dr. Michael Griffin, the Rosetta Mission Team, the Kepler-K2 Team, and the New Horizons Mission Team.

SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy Test Flight Brings National Space Society’s Vision of a Return to the Moon and a Spacefaring Civilization Closer

The National Space Society (NSS) congratulates SpaceX on the first flight of the Falcon Heavy (FH). At 3:45 pm EST yesterday, the most powerful U.S. liquid-fueled rocket to fly since the Saturn V roared off Launch Complex 39A at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida with 5.5-million pounds of thrust.

NSS believes that the first flight of the FH is an important step toward achieving Milestone 2: Higher Commercial Launch Rates and Lower Cost to Orbit in the NSS Space Settlement Roadmap (http://www.nss.org/settlement/roadmap/RoadmapPart2.html).

“The FH will enable concept studies like the Evolvable Lunar Architecture (see http://www.nss.org/docs/EvolvableLunarArchitecture.pdf) to become a reality, allowing the U.S.A. to return to the Moon within the current NASA budget while maintaining a balanced space program, including a gapless transition to future low Earth orbit commercial space stations and robotic exploration of the solar system,” said NSS Senior Vice President Bruce Pittman. “NSS members look forward to seeing NASA join the U.S. military in making use of the commercially competitive FH, now the most capable rocket currently flying.”

The two Falcon Heavy side boosters return to launch site. Credit: SpaceX.

Minutes into the flight the two side boosters separated from the center core and flew back to the launch site, landing nearly simultaneously. The center core of the first stage was lost while attempting to land on a downrange drone ship. The second stage ignited twice to loft to orbit a “mass simulator” consisting of Elon Musk’s red Tesla roadster driven by “Starman,” a mannequin wearing a SpaceX spacesuit.

Elon Musk’s Tesla Roadster en route past Mars; actual image from hood camera in orbit. Credit: SpaceX.

Later in the evening a final burn blasted the Tesla and its driver on a path toward Mars and the asteroid belt. In addition to being really cool, this mission profile demonstrates the ability of the FH to launch large satellites directly to geosynchronous orbit after significant coasting periods. During the coast interval SpaceX released live video via the Internet of the Tesla circling the Earth.

“SpaceX achieved a lot of firsts with yesterday’s astounding flight,” said Dale Skran, NSS Executive Vice President and Chair of the NSS Policy Committee. “The FH was successfully boosted off the pad with 27 engines firing simultaneously, a new record for the U.S.A.,” he said. Additionally, Skran observed that the return to launch site of two side boosters has never been done before. But most importantly, the FH opens an era of lower launch costs that will enable a wide range of new endeavors in space, including an affordable return to the Moon.

“The reduction in launch costs that will be achieved with the FH was not just unrealized ten years ago, it was actually characterized as impossible by leading aerospace engineers,” said noted Space Solar Power expert and member of the NSS Board of Directors John Mankins. “The targeted prices that SpaceX promises with the FH — below $1,000 per pound — will be a breakthrough moment in the realization of ambitious future space business sectors such as Space Solar Power,” he said.

Congratulations to all at SpaceX who work every day to make us a multi-planetary species and creating a spacefaring civilization.

Sean Hargreaves, Star Trek Movie Concept Designer, Wins National Space Society’s 2018 Space Pioneer Award for Art

The National Space Society’s Space Pioneer Award for Art will be presented to Star Trek® motion picture concept designer Sean Hargreaves. This award honors the work he has done in the motion picture industry, especially for design work on the huge space city and Star Fleet base “Yorktown” shown in the 2016 movie Star Trek Beyond. NSS has a vision of space and planetary settlement as part of our real future in space and the Yorktown city depicts an orbital space habitat beautifully.

Starbase Yorktown. Credit: Sean Hargreaves

NSS invites the public to come meet, interact and learn from our awardees and attend their award ceremonies. NSS will present the Space Pioneer Award to Sean at our annual conference, the 2018 International Space Development Conference (the 37th ISDC) to be held in Los Angeles, California, at the Sheraton Gateway Hotel at LAX. The Conference will run from May 24-27, 2018.

About Sean Hargreaves

Sean received a BA in Science from the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena, CA in 1989 and since 1992 has been working on a wide variety of films such as science fiction, horror, action/adventure and thrillers. He has also worked in wide variety of roles, including storyboard artist, matte painter, illustrator, costume design, assistant art director, concept artist, concept design, production design, etc. Some of the films he has worked on like The 5th Element have involved very visually complex scenes with lots of motion and perspective. This work requires a constant balancing act between what can be imagined, what looks realistic, and what is practical to show on the screen.

About the Space Pioneer Award

NSS Space Pioneer AwardThe Space Pioneer award consists of a silvery pewter Moon globe cast by the Baker Art Foundry in Placerville, California, from a sculpture originally created by Don Davis, the well-known space and astronomical artist. The globe, which represents multiple space mission destinations and goals, sits freely on a brass support with a wooden base and brass plaque as shown at right. The support and base are created by renowned sculptor Michael Hall of the Studio Foundry of Driftwood, TX. NSS has several different categories under which the award is presented each year, starting in 1988. Some of the recent winners of Space Pioneer Awards include Elon Musk, Ray Bradbury, Robert Bigelow, Apollo Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, Dr. Michael Griffin, the Rosetta Mission Team, the Kepler-K2 Team, and the New Horizons Mission Team.

National Space Society to Present Space Pioneer Award to NASA Astronaut Dr. Kathryn Sullivan

NASA astronaut Dr. Kathryn Sullivan is the winner of the National Space Society’s 2018 Space Pioneer Award for Non-Legislative Government Service. This award honors the work she did as an astronaut and oceanographer. She flew on the space shuttle three times, including the 1990 mission that deployed the Hubble Space Telescope, and more recently served as Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

NSS invites the public to come meet, interact and learn from the awardees and attend their award ceremonies. NSS will present the Space Pioneer Award to Dr. Sullivan at our annual conference, the 2018 International Space Development Conference (the 37th ISDC) to be held in Los Angeles, California, at the Sheraton Gateway Hotel at LAX. The Conference will run from May 24-27, 2018.

About Dr. Sulllivan 

Dr. Sullivan received a Doctorate in Geology from Dalhousie University in 1978. She has participated in oceanographic expeditions in both the Atlantic and Pacific. Her achievements include fifteen years of service as a shuttle astronaut and three very significant flights from 1984 to 1992. On her inaugural mission, she performed the first EVA by an American female astronaut. On the second flight, she delivered the Hubble Space Telescope safely to orbit. On her third mission, she was the payload commander for the very first SpaceLab Mission to Planet Earth. She also served as Director for Ohio State University’s Battelle Center for Mathematics and Science Education Policy. From 2011 until 2017, she served in a variety of senior positions at NOAA, including Chief Scientist, Deputy Administrator, and Administrator. The space program has always looked both outward and inward, and the work on Earth observation and analysis continues to be a major part of the of both NASA and NOAA programs. She is currently working on a book about the Hubble Space Telescope and the maintenance and repair team that made Hubble servicing possible.

About the Space Pioneer Award

NSS Space Pioneer AwardThe Space Pioneer award consists of a silvery pewter Moon globe cast by the Baker Art Foundry in Placerville, California, from a sculpture originally created by Don Davis, the well-known space and astronomical artist. The globe, which represents multiple space mission destinations and goals, sits freely on a brass support with a wooden base and brass plaque as shown at right. The support and base are created by renowned sculptor Michael Hall of the Studio Foundry of Driftwood, TX. NSS has several different categories under which the award is presented each year, starting in 1988. Some of the recent winners of Space Pioneer Awards include Elon Musk, Ray Bradbury, Robert Bigelow, Apollo Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, Dr. Michael Griffin, the Rosetta Mission Team, the Kepler-K2 Team, and the New Horizons Mission Team.

National Space Society Endorses Presidential Space Policy Directive 1: Back to the Moon to Stay

On December 11, 2017, President Trump signed Space Policy Directive 1 (SPD1), which called for the United States to “lead the return of humans to the Moon for long-term exploration and utilization” while working with “commercial and international partners.”

“The National Space Society [NSS] worked to inform the new Administration regarding its views on space policy options over the last year, and is pleased to see that two of the Society’s recommendations have been adopted,” said Dale Skran, NSS Executive Vice President. “A few months ago the National Space Council was set up, led by Vice-President Pence, with NSS Board of Governors member and former NSS Executive Vice President Dr. Scott Pace as the Executive Secretary. The just adopted SPD1 calls for the U.S. to return to the Moon. Both of these key objectives have long-standing NSS support, and were recommended to the new Administration at a workshop organized by NSS and hosted by the venture capital firm DFJ.” The output of that workshop can be found at http://www.nss.org/legislative/positions/NSS-DFJ-Workshop-Recommendations-Nov-2016.pdf.

“NSS has long called for a commercially based return to the Moon that focuses on the utilization of local lunar resources,” said NSS Senior Vice President Bruce Pittman. “We look forward with great anticipation to working with NASA, Congress, and the Administration to enable a human return to the Moon, this time to stay. A return to the Moon leading to a permanent settlement on the Moon is a key step in the NSS Roadmap to Space Settlement (http://www.nss.org/settlement/roadmap/RoadmapPart4.html). Milestones 10 through 13 in the Roadmap relate to Space Policy Directive 1, and Milestone #10, “Robotic Confirmation of Lunar Resources” should be a top priority for NASA under this new directive.”

Mark Hopkins, the Chair of the NSS Executive Committee, added, “NSS is pleased that Space Policy Directive 1 calls for a return to the Moon with international and commercial partners. NSS, via its United Nations representation and network of international chapters, has been working for decades to ensure that the development and settlement of space involves the entire human race. NSS will be urging NASA to build on the public-private partnerships which currently support the International Space Station, to bring them outward into cis-lunar space, leading eventually to a wide range of self-sustaining enterprises on and around the Moon.”

The National Space Society (NSS) calls attention to Jerry Hendrix and Adam Routh of the Center for New American Security (CNAS) for their October 23rd essay: “A Space Policy for the Trump Administration” (https://www.cnas.org/publications/reports/a-space-policy-for-the-trump-administration).

The CNAS authors favor expansion and freeing of the commercial space sector to fully harness the resources and wealth of solar system, noting that “the pursuit of space-based economic opportunities, and a desire to colonize celestial bodies have been among the main motivators in recent decades.” This is very consistent with National Space Society’s Statement of Philosophy and Space Settlement Roadmap.

Hendrix and Routh continue: “The United States’ broader space efforts should encourage the development of the commercial space sector by enabling the civil space sector to blaze a pioneering trail. Reestablishing a U.S. presence on the Moon in the form of raw materials mining, and then developing an orbital manufacturing ‘shipyard’ in lunar orbit to produce reusable trans-planetary ships for transport and colonization, should be the first steps for much-needed assurances. There are ample resources on the Moon, and the lower gravity of the Earth’s satellite would make it cheaper to lift construction materials into orbit.”