LCROSS Impact Data Indicates Water on Moon

By Jonas Dino, NASA Ames Research Center
November 13, 2009

The argument that the moon is a dry, desolate place no longer holds water.

Secrets the moon has been holding, for perhaps billions of years, are now being revealed to the delight of scientists and space enthusiasts alike.

NASA today opened a new chapter in our understanding of the moon. Preliminary data from the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite, or LCROSS, indicates that the mission successfully uncovered water during the Oct. 9, 2009 impacts into the permanently shadowed region of Cabeus cater near the moon’s south pole.

The impact created by the LCROSS Centaur upper stage rocket created a two-part plume of material from the bottom of the crater. The first part was a high angle plume of vapor and fine dust and the second a lower angle ejecta curtain of heavier material. This material has not seen sunlight in billions of years.

“We’re unlocking the mysteries of our nearest neighbor and by extension the solar system. It turns out the moon harbors many secrets, and LCROSS has added a new layer to our understanding,” said Michael Wargo, chief lunar scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

Scientists have long speculated about the source of vast quantities of hydrogen that have been observed at the lunar poles. The LCROSS findings are shedding new light on the question of water, which could be more widespread and in greater quantity than previously suspected.

Permanently shadowed regions could hold a key to the history and evolution of the solar system, much as an ice core sample taken on Earth reveals ancient data. In addition, water, and other compounds represent potential resources that could sustain future lunar exploration.

Since the impacts, the LCROSS science team has been working almost nonstop analyzing the huge amount of data the spacecraft collected. The team concentrated on data from the satellite’s spectrometers, which provide the most definitive information about the presence of water. A spectrometer examines light emitted or absorbed by materials that helps identify their composition.

“We are ecstatic,” said Anthony Colaprete, LCROSS project scientist and principal investigator at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif. “Multiple lines of evidence show water was present in both the high angle vapor plume and the ejecta curtain created by the LCROSS Centaur impact. The concentration and distribution of water and other substances requires further analysis, but it is safe to say Cabeus holds water.”

The team took the known near infrared spectral signatures of water and other materials and compared them to the spectra collected by the LCROSS near infrared spectrometer of the impact.

“We were only able to match the spectra from LCROSS data when we inserted the spectra for water,” said Colaprete. “No other reasonable combination of other compounds that we tried matched the observations. The possibility of contamination from the Centaur also was ruled out.”

Additional confirmation came from an emission in the ultraviolet spectrum that was attributed to hydroxyl, one product from the break-up of water by sunlight. When atoms and molecules are excited, they release energy at specific wavelengths that are detected by the spectrometers. A similar process is used in neon signs. When electrified, a specific gas will produce a distinct color. The ultraviolet visible spectrometer detected hydroxyl signatures just after impact that are consistent with a water vapor cloud in sunlight.

Data from the other LCROSS instruments are being analyzed for additional clues about the state and distribution of the material at the impact site. The LCROSS science team along with colleagues are poring over the data to understand the entire impact event, from flash to crater, with the final goal being the understanding of the distribution of materials, and in particular volatiles, within the soil at the impact site.

“The full understanding of the LCROSS data may take some time. The data is that rich,” said Colaprete. “Along with the water in Cabeus, there are hints of other intriguing substances. The permanently shadowed regions of the moon are truly cold traps, collecting and preserving material over billions of years.”

LCROSS was launched June 18, 2009 as a companion mission to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. After separating from LRO, the LCROSS spacecraft held onto the spent Centaur upper stage rocket of the launch vehicle, executed a lunar swingby and entered into a series of long looping orbits around the Earth.

After traveling approximately 113 days and nearly 5.6 million miles (9 million km), the Centaur and LCROSS separated on final approach to the moon. Traveling as fast as a speeding bullet, the Centaur impacted the lunar surface shortly after 4:31 a.m. PDT Oct. 9 with LCROSS watching with its onboard instruments. Approximately four minutes of data was collected before the LCROSS itself impacted the lunar surface.

Working closely with scientists from LRO and other observatories that viewed the impact, the LCROSS team is working to understand the full scope of the LCROSS data. LRO continues to make passes over the impact site to give the LCROSS team additional insight into the mechanics of the impact and its resulting craters.

What other secrets will the moon reveal? The analysis continues!

Push in Congress for Additional NASA Funding (Update)

In response to the Human Spaceflight Committee call for an additional $3 billion for NASA, Congresswoman Suzanne Kosmas and Congressman Ken Calvert have created a letter calling on the President to increase NASA’s funding.

They need your help! Please call your Congressman and Senator TODAY and ask them to sign on to the Kosmas-Calvert letter (reproduced in its entirety below). To find your representative visit: (at bottom of page).

The full letter from Representatives Kosmas and Calvert:

Support America’s Human Space Flight Program: Urge President Obama to Fulfill Augustine Committee’s Recommendation to Increase Funding for NASA

Current Co-signers:

C. Brown (FL), Capps (CA), Fudge (OH), Grayson (FL), G. Green (TX), Griffith (AL), A. Hastings (FL), Honda (CA), Jackson-Lee (TX), Klein (FL), Kosmas (FL), Kratovil (MD), B. Markey (CO), Meek (FL), Napolitano (CA), Nye (VA), Perlmutter (CO), Schiff (CA), Van Hollen (VA), Wasserman Schultz (FL), and Wexler (FL), Barton (TX), R. Bishop (UT), K. Brady (TX), Calvert (CA), Cao (LA), Carter (TX), Chaffetz (UT), Culberson (TX), R. Forbes (VA), R. Hall (TX), Jenkins (KS), Lundgren (CA), McCaul (TX), McKeon (CA), C. Miller (MI), Olson (TX), Posey (FL), Rooney (FL), L. Smith (TX)

Dear Colleague,

With the recent release of the Final Report by the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee (Augustine Committee), we invite you to join us in sending a letter to President Obama urging him to make the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) a national priority and work with the Congress to provide the funding necessary to ensure a robust human space flight program (the Summary and Final Augustine Committee reports can be found at

The Augustine Committee’s findings that our nation cannot conduct meaningful human exploration beyond low-Earth-orbit under current budget guidelines should serve as a wake up call. For too long, NASA has been given funds that do not match its mission. This insufficient funding has delayed the development of NASA’s next generation spacecraft, leading to an extended gap in domestic access to space.

To enable a human space exploration program that our nation can truly be proud of, the Augustine Committee recommends an increase of at least $3 billion annually over the FY10 budget profile. Although this level would not fully restore the funding originally budgeted for NASA’s next generation human space flight program, it will allow for meaningful exploration and ensure we maximize the return on our investment.

NASA’s human space flight program and the impending gap impacts nearly every state, with contractors and suppliers large and small spread out across the nation. To find out NASA’s impact on your state and district, please visit

We must ensure the President works with Congress to take this unique and fleeting opportunity to show a true commitment to NASA in order to sustain our global leadership in science and technology, address national challenges, and inspire our youth to pursue math and science.

We face many critical decisions in the coming months that will affect America’s human space flight program for decades to come and hope you will join us in urging the President to take action in a timely manner. Deadline to co-sign is Noon on Tuesday, November 17th. Please contact Carrie Chess with Congresswoman Kosmas at or 5-2706 or Deena Contreras with Congressman Calvert at or 5-1986 to sign on or if you have questions.


Rep. Suzanne Kosmas (D-FL)
Rep. Ken Calvert (R-CA)

Letter to President Obama

November X, 2009

President Barack Obama
The White House
1600 Pennsylvania Avenue
Washington, D.C. 20500

Dear President Obama:

As Members of Congress who greatly value the contributions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to our nation, we appreciate the hard work of the U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee. With its final report available now, we look forward to renewed communications between the Administration and Congress about America’s human space flight program. We write in strong support of receiving a Fiscal Year 2011 budget request which truly supports this core element of NASA’s mission.

While evaluating options for future of human space exploration, the Augustine Committee concluded that regardless of the direction or the details of the program, an increased level of long-term, sustainable funding must be a major component. The Review Committee’s finding that, “Human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit is not viable under the FY 2010 budget guideline” demonstrates that NASA’s underfunded budgets over the past several years have slowed the pace of exploration, depleted resources, and frustrated the development of new space systems. We believe an increased level of funding is essential to ensure NASA has the resources needed to meet the mission challenges of human space flight.

Currently, NASA is funding the development of the next generation human space flight systems with partners that bring decades of experience in developing and operating complex space systems while also encouraging new entrants to the space flight industry. The $3 billion annual increase recommended by the Committee would not fully restore the funding originally budgeted for the next generation programs. However, the increase would make a considerable difference in our ability to have a space exploration program to ensure that our nation maintains its global leadership position. A significant investment must be made given NASA’s contributions to America’s economic and national security.

The International Space Station (ISS) should remain operational as long as it can be productive without being constrained by an arbitrary, budget-driven termination date. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2008 designated the ISS as a U.S. National Laboratory to conduct research for other Federal agencies and the commercial sector. Extending the ISS, at least through 2020, is necessary in order to maintain and improve important international partnerships, maximize the return on our nation’s investment, and spur discoveries that will enable exploration of our universe and improve life here on Earth.

As you may know, NASA is supported by tens of thousands of highly skilled and experienced men and women who make up the civil servant and contractor workforce. These space professionals are a critical national resource and contribute to a vital industrial base that supports civil, military, and commercial space. If we allow a gap in human space flight our nation will have lost valuable skills that will be costly and difficult to replace. In addition, we also will have given up on our hard-won space preeminence over other nations, including Russia and China, who will surely step in to fill the void.

We wish to impress upon you the significant and fleeting opportunity we have to ensure that our nation continues its preeminence in human space flight. Instituting a cohesive and comprehensive plan with clear direction for NASA’s future policies depends on leadership and the commitment to follow through with adequate funding. This can only be accomplished if it is established as a national priority through Presidential leadership.

We know that you share with us the enthusiasm that is generated by a bold human space flight program. We look forward to receiving your Administration’s proposal and working with you to ensure a robust, cutting edge and inspirational human space flight program worthy of our great nation.


NSS Statement on the Final Report of the Human Spaceflight Plans Committee ("Seeking a Human Spaceflight Program Worthy of a Great Nation")

The National Space Society (NSS) welcomes the release of the Final Report of the Review of U.S. Space Flight Plans Committee, better known as the Augustine Commission. NSS thanks the Committee for its hard work and due diligence, and for the message that its Final Report seeks to convey: The United States can, and must, continue to be the world’s leader in space, but to do so, our space program must be appropriately funded. NSS joins with the Committee in its call for an additional $3 billion in annual funding for NASA.

“NASA has been chronically underfunded in recent years,” says Greg Allison, Executive Vice President of the National Space Society. “Our nation’s space program has simply not received the level of funding which has been needed, with the result that NASA has fallen further and further behind each year, being asked to do more and more with less and less. Although the common perception is that NASA receives a large percentage of our nation’s budget, NASA’s budget in recent years has actually been less than 6/10s of one percent of the national budget.” Indeed, the Augustine Commission reported (on Page 22 of its Final Report) that at the present time the human spaceflight program costs each citizen only about seven cents a day.

NSS asserts that NASA should receive this additional funding, as NASA has stimulated the economy like no other agency, inspired American youth to seek higher education, shored up America’s edge in technology, enhanced our defense, and enhanced American prestige around the world.

“One of the most important reasons for space exploration and development, which is frequently overlooked, is that we face a world with dwindling energy supplies,” says Rick Zucker, Vice President of Public Affairs for the National Space Society. “However, there are untapped, and potentially unlimited, sources of energy in space, some of which lie just beyond the atmosphere that surrounds our fragile planet. Investment in our nation’s space program would enable NASA to take the lead in research and development toward potential energy independence.”

Space could ultimately provide access to energy and resources such as space based solar power beamed to Earth, helium-3 for fusion power, platinum group metals for fuel cells that could enable a hydrogen economy, and strategic metals important to our economy and national defense. These programs offer capabilities that also could lead to developing resources from asteroids (and other “near Earth objects”) and the means to protect our planet from their potential impact. Ultimately this could allow humanity to live in and “green” the cosmos.

Gary Barnhard, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the National Space Society, added, “The National Space Society implores President Obama, and Congress, to take decisive action to restore the balance of funding necessary to implement and sustain a human spaceflight program that is worthy of a great nation, as advocated by the Human Spaceflight Plans Committee’s Final Report. What is at stake is not just the orchestration of specific, attainable goals for space exploration and development in this generation, but whether or not we as a nation will be part of an international community that together reaches out to the stars.”

NSS calls on our nation’s leaders for an additional $3 billion per year to be applied to NASA so that NASA can accomplish the missions that our government has tasked it with performing. Our economic prosperity and our nation’s future depend on it.

The Glories of Our Journey

By Veronica Ann Zabala-Aliberto

It is only fitting that just before humanity celebrates the 40th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing on the surface of the Moon, that a current NASA lunar mission acquires imagery dissolving many misconceptions and proving once and for all that the Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, arrived on the Moon July 20, 1969.

A  mission dubbed as the “precursor mission” to sending humans to the Moon by 2020, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Cameras (LROC) not only show the Apollo Descent Vehicle left behind by the astronauts, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, but also depict their tracks while traversing to the ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Science Experiment Package).  ALSEP is a suite of scientific instruments placed by the astronauts at the landing site of each of the five Apollo missions to land on the Moon following Apollo 11 (Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17).  Apollo 11, however, left a smaller, temporary package called the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package, or EASEP.

Four times enlargement of an uncalibrated LROC NAC image showing the Apollo 14 lunar module (LM Antares) and the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP). Note the astronaut tracks between the two artifacts [NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University].Apollo 11 (UL; 282 meters wide), Apollo 15 (UR; 384 meters wide), Apollo 16 (ML; 256 meters wide), Apollo 17 (MR; 359 meters wide), Apollo 14 (Bottom; 538 meters wide) [NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University].What is so unique about LRO’s cameras is that they take pictures at a much higher resolution than previous lunar missions.  This is crucial in order to determine if new craters within the time the Apollo astronauts walked the surface of the Moon were formed as well as how the lunar equipment left behind has held up all these years within the harsh environment on the lunar surface.

Mapping the Apollo landing sites has come at a most appropriate time when the world has experienced such economic uncertainty and NASA’s human exploration program is in jeopardy.  Such imagery is crucial to educate and inspire the next generation of scientists, engineers and explorers. So much time has passed that two generations of the world’s population would begin to consider humans walking the surface of the Moon just a folktale.  It is imperative to keep human exploration to the Moon, Mars and beyond in the legislative language and to ensure that educators, students and members of the general public are kept on the same page as NASA in order to ensure that there are no interruptions in human missions again.  Forty years is too long of a time span to not go back to the Moon.  Especially when it is Earth’s nearest celestial body – only 3.5 days to be exact!

I learned a very important lesson in my planetary geology class at Arizona State University which I have translated back to visitors at the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Science Operation Center.  As my mentor informed us, there are three phases of exploration.

The first phase is Observation and we can thank Galileo for that with the invention of the telescope.  Many have observed the Earth’s moon via the telescope for centuries.  The next phase of human exploration is Reconnaissance.  This is where we get our lunar orbiters and landers.  When we want to explore further and closer to the object we are interested in sending humans to we send an armada of spacecraft and surface landers to that planet or moon in order to determine if it is safe for humans to live and work on, what resources are available, and if we can harvest those resources for the betterment of those living on Earth.  The final phase of exploration is Human Exploration to that planet or moon of interest.

Therefore, when it comes to Earth’s moon, we have already completed these three phases of exploration!  Theoretically, you would think that it would only be natural for us to go back and continue our goals of exploring the Moon with increased frequency.  Right?  Hopefully, with the spectacular imagery being obtained by LROC, we will again start to explore and educate the way we did when Neil and Buzz walked the surface of the Moon.  And remember…LROC is still in its Commissioning Phase.  Which means that in just a couple of months we will be in our Nominal Phase of the mission where we will take even more exciting images of the lunar surface at even higher resolution!  So stay tuned!

Veronica Ann Zabala-Aliberto is a senior undergraduate student at Arizona State University within the School of Earth and Space Exploration who currently works on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission within the LROC Science Operations Center.  She is also the Chapter President for the National Space Society of Phoenix.

Can We Afford to Settle Space?

[For Space Settlement Blog Day, July 20, 2009]

Can we afford to settle space? A concomitant question is “Can we afford NOT to settle space?” but let’s leave that aside for now. In the long run, space settlement will not be a consumer of wealth but will be be a creator of wealth. This is basically a truism because if space settlement does not become a creator of wealth it simply won’t happen. Assuming civilization survives, it is likely to move into space because that is where the vast bulk of available material and energy resources are located. Utilizing these resources creates wealth.

The real question is: How do we get there from here? All space settlement scenarios have one thing in common — a very high startup cost before wealth starts being created. Dealing with this chicken-and-egg problem has been plaguing the space movement for the past 40 years. We don’t have the startup money.

Or do we? “What do you mean we don’t have enough money?” aerospace writer Eric Burgess once said. “We invented money.”

This response is not just flippant. A monetary invention, the private stock company, was at least in part responsible for financing the settlement of the New World at a time when reaching it was difficult, expensive, and dangerous. As a result, the New World became the largest creator of wealth in history. Space can do the same.

Besides inventive technologies, we need inventive ways of financing to settle space. There is always a lively debate within the space movement whether such financing should be governmental (with its inherent inefficiencies) or private (with its too-short time horizons), or some creative combination of the two.

A recommended classic paper addressing these subjects was written in 1978 by J. Peter Vajk (rhymes with “Like”) as part of the big DOE/NASA study of space solar power. The paper, “Satellite Power System (SPS) Financial/Management Scenarios” [3.7 MB PDF file], described 10 organizational models for managing and financing projects of this magnitude (the paper is also a model of expository writing). The ten models are as follows:

  • Existing government agencies, e.g. NASA, DOE, etc.
  • A new government agency, patterned after the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
  • A taxpayer stock corporation, a new concept
  • A trust fund supported by energy taxes, patterned after the financing of the interstate highway system
  • A federal agency financed by bonds, patterned after the Federal National Mortgage Association
  • A staging company, an as-yet unrealized new concept for a fully private venture
  • A government-chartered monopoly, patterned after the Communications Satellite Corporation (Comsat)
  • A consortium model, already used for large-scale projects
  • A corporate socialism model, patterned after such developments as the transcontinental railroad
  • A universal capitalism model, a concept similar to Employee Stock Ownership Plans

It is not intended here to argue which (or which combination) of these might be the best. The point is that creative solutions can be and to some extent have already been identified. It remains to be seen what role our generation will play in the process of realizing them.

Financial and Organizational Analysis for a Space Solar Power System

A ground-breaking new paper on space solar power has just been added to the online NSS Space Solar Power Library. The paper is: “Financial and Organizational Analysis for a Space Solar Power System: A Business Plan to Make Space Solar Power a Reality,” May 18, 2009, 179 pages, 10.7 MB PDF.

Lt. Col. Peter Garretson, NSS Director and one of the principal authors of the Department of Defense report Space-Based Solar Power As an Opportunity for Strategic Security writes:

“This is the first modern paper to include a stakeholder analysis, an in-depth discussion of international organizational aspects (including intellectual property and separation of manufacture and operator companies), and Net Present Value calculations of niche systems (such as front-line military power).”

Authors of the paper are Sun Xin, IT Director of the China Academy of Space and Technology; Evelyn Panier, Finance Application Consultant; Cornelius Zund, Control Systems Engineer at Pratt & Whitney Canada; and Raul Gutierrez Gomez, Lieutenant Colonel in the Colombian Air Force and Planning Director of Military Aeronautical Institute.

The paper was a multicultural team project submitted in partial fulfillment for the degree of Master of Business Administration in Aerospace Management at Toulouse Business School, Toulouse, France.

NSS Space Solar Power Library Growing

The NSS Space Solar Power Library is the largest source of information about space solar power on the web, and NSS has an onging project of adding documents to this Library and in particular to the large body of information derived from the early DOE/NASA Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program carried out between 1977-1981, which remains the largest study of space solar power to date. NSS has a single volunteer who is gradually obtaining these documents and scanning them for the NSS website, making them available to researchers, students, policy makers, and the general public. Added since January 1 of this year are the following:

  • Compilation and Assessment of Microwave Bioeffects: A Selective Review of the Literature of Microwaves in Relation to the Satellite Power System. Battelle Memorial Institute Pacific Northwest Laboratory. PNL-2634 UC-41. May 1978, 87 pages. [PDF 0.6 MB]
  • Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program – Microwave Health and Ecological Effects. DOE/ER-0035-2, November 1980. 144 pages. [PDF 5.8 MB]
  • Prototype Environmental Assessment of the Impacts of Siting and Constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS). DOE/ER-0072, August 1980. 270 pages. [PDF 2.5 MB]
  • Workshop on the Radiation Environment of the Satellite Power System. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, September 1978, 263 pages. [PDF 5.2 MB]
  • An Initial Comparative Assessment of Orbital and Terrestrial Central Power Systems. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, March 1977, 159 pages. [PDF 6.2 MB]
  • Environmental Assessment of the Satellite Power System – Concept Development and Evaluation Program – Effects of Ionospheric Heating on Telecommunications. DOE/ER/10003-T2, August, 1980. 95 pages. [PDF 3.3 MB]
  • Impact Of SPS Heating on VLF, LF, and MF Telocommunications Systems Ascertained by Experimental Means. DOE/ER/10003-T1, July, 1980. 101 pages. [PDF 4.3 MB]
  • Ionizing Radiation Risks to Satellite Power Systems (SPS) Workers in Space. DOE/ER-0094, December 1980. 56 pages. [PDF 0.5 MB]
  • Comparative Health and Safety Assessment of the Satellite Power System and Other Electrical Generation Alternatives. DOE/ER-0091, December 1980. 141 pages. [PDF 1.5 MB]
  • Electronic and Mechanical Improvement of the Receiving Terminal of a Free-Space Microwave Power Transmission System. NASA Contractor Report 135194, William C. Brown, Raytheon Company, August 1977, 158 pages. [PDF 8.1 MB]
  • Microwave Power Transmission System Studies, Volume IV, Sections 9-14 with Appendices. NASA Contractor Report 134886, Raytheon Company, December 1975, 236 pages. [PDF 6.0 MB]
  • Microwave Beamed Power Technology Improvement, Final Report. NASA Contractor Report 163043, William C. Brown, Raytheon Company, May 1980, 148 pages. [PDF 8.2 MB]
  • Laser Power Conversion System Analysis, Final Report, Volume II. NASA Contractor Report 159523, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, September 1978, 136 pages. [PDF 4.0 MB]
  • Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program – Electromagnetic Systems Compatibility. DOE/ER-0096, January, 1981. 92 pages. [PDF 2.8 MB]
  • Comparative Analysis of Net Energy Balance of Satellite Power Systems (SPS) and Other Energy Systems. DOE/ER-0056, April 1980. 131 pages. [PDF 3.9 MB]
  • Workshop on Satellite Power Systems (SPS) Effects on Optical and Radio Astronomy. CONF-7905143, April 1980. 246 pages. [PDF 8.9 MB]

More to come ….

Prize-Winning Space Settlement Design

The winners of the grand prize in the 2009 NASA/NSS Space Settlement Design Contest have been nicely written up in the press.

Eric Yam, a Toronto high school student, was featured in an article in the Toronto Globe and Mail.  Eric shared the grand prize for his modular design called “Asten,” which is 1.6 kilometers long, 1 kilometer wide, and could be home for 10,000 people. An illustration is shown below.

Eric’s complete design submission is available on the NASA and NSS websites as a 12-MB PDF file. He will be a guest at the International Space Development Conference in Orlando at the end of May.

Sharing the grand prize were Pooja Bhattacharya and Swastika Bhattacharya of Orissa, India. They were written up in an article in The Times of IndiaODISA: Orissan Design Inspired Systems and Aerovehicles was the title of their submission.