This article was originally published here by The Post, a student publication at Ohio University, and is reproduced with permission.
By Lauren Fisher
To Ohio University professor Don Flournoy, solar power used to be little more than a fantasy out of a science fiction novel. Now, that fantasy has become a reality — and one for which OU has received special recognition.
The National Space Society named the university a “Center of Excellence in Space Solar Power and Power Beaming” during the organization’s annual International Space Development Conference in Puerto Rico in May.
The NSS is an international, independent non-profit organization “dedicated to the creation of a spacefaring civilization.” It supports space expedition both at home and abroad, with the mission of mankind someday living and working “beyond the Earth.”
The society lauded OU students and faculty for their progress in solar power, as well as a process known as power beaming, by which solar energy is captured and converted into a renewable form of electricity.
Flournoy, Scripps College of Communication and School of Media Arts & Studies professor emeritus, found his interest in solar power in the 1990s while serving as the education vice president of the Society of Satellite Professionals International Board of Directors.
Flournoy, having introduced the first satellite communication courses at OU, is also the founder the Online Journal of Space Communication, a cross-discipline scholarly publication hoping to advance the study of space communication.
“By 2010, the idea of reducing dependency on fossil fuels by using (the) Sun’s energy taken directly from space was gaining momentum, and had become a priority mission of the National Space Society,” Flournoy said in a news release. “With my communication background, I understood that sun’s energy was already being used by space satellites to power the microwaving of voice, video and data to and from space.”
Using OU’s Game Research and Immersive Design lab, students and faculty have been able to create visualizations and animations that could prove instrumental in shaping the future of solar energy.
Alice Hoffman, an NSS director and program manager for the NSS Enterprise in Space initiative, commended the university and noted in the news release that being named a Center of Excellence signifies that an organization provides those interested in the field with the resources necessary to better understand the often-complicated subject.
Hoffman also praised the work of Lorna Jean Edmonds, Ohio vice provost for global affairs and International Studies.
A close working relationship with National Space Society Enterprise in Space is more important than ever for OU students. A number of student’s experiments in solar energy and power beaming will be carried onboard a spacecraft in the upcoming years, Flournoy said.
Although harnessing the energy of the sun tends to be an expensive and often-difficult venture, Flournoy said with continued development, it has the potential to be one of earth’s principle renewable energy sources.
“We feel this is a very important message to get out as the more people know about it and the more progress the government sees, the better off we will be,” Hoffman said in the release. “I am very concerned about climate change, and (solar power) is a lasting solution.”
To Flournoy, like many others, the world of solar power is more exciting than ever, with new technology paving the way for progress that could revolutionize the world of energy.
“We used to read about Buck Rogers being propelled into space above us. And now we can do that,” Flournoy said in the release. “Now we realize that the sun is a much cleaner, long-term solution to the production of electrical power. This Center of Excellence designation is a nod to the work we have done at Ohio University to help make this a reality.”
This article was originally published here on Engineering.com and reproduced with permission.
There are currently over 100 million students waiting to become the next generation of engineers, rocket scientists and astrophysicists to get humans from Earth to Mars and beyond, but they may not be able to fulfill their potential simply due to a lack of access to a quality education. According to a study from UNESCO, more than 100 million young people worldwide, 62 to 66 million of whom are girls, are not attending school of any kind. Hundreds of millions more are unable to afford good-quality or safe schools.
However, groups like OneWeb and ONE are aiming to provide universal Internet access worldwide by 2020, greatly expanding the ability to use educational resources online. Nevertheless, Internet access does not guarantee a quality education.
To address this problem, imagine if there was a massive, free online academy where any student or teacher with broadband could learn science, technology, engineering, art and math (STEAM) from educators around the globe, as well as the greatest minds in their fields, including NASA scientists, cutting-edge researchers and NewSpace engineers? On top of that, what if they had an artificially intelligent tutor and mentor to guide them in their learning?
That’s what Enterprise In Space (EIS) is trying to achieve, and it all begins with one giant class science project: the design, launch and recovery of a 3D-printed spacecraft that will orbit Earth with 100+ active and passive student experiments and a link to an AI to help the students run them and analyze their data.
To pull it off, EIS, a nonprofit program of the National Space Society, has drawn up the plans, put together an expert team of space veterans, raised $27.5 million in in-kind donations and partnered with some of the biggest names in the NewSpace industry. Now, all it needs is $32 million to put the plan in motion and set a course for the stars.
To engage students in STEAM education and space exploration, EIS is hosting contests and enlisting students from all grade levels—kindergarten all the way through postgraduate education—to design experiments to be flown aboard a 3D-printed orbiter dubbed the NSS Enterprise. From now until the spacecraft is launched in 2019 or 2020, the winning experiments will be used as the basis for online curricula and lesson plans to populate EIS’ massive open online course platform, known as the EIS Academy.
Once launched, the NSS Enterprise will orbit our planet for up to one month, carrying not only the experiments, but also Ali, an advanced artificial intelligence that will manage the active experiments. Ali will also serve as the voice of the spacecraft, allowing student teams on Earth to engage with the AI platform using natural language. In fact, Ali will eventually act as a personal tutor to students from around the world.
The EIS Academy will be overseen by EIS Education Manager Lynne F. Zielinski, one of the most decorated space educators in the world, who has mentored students to fly experiments in space for the past 26 years. In speaking with ENGINEERING.com, Zielinski said that the program will not only give students the tools to become engineers, but EIS will train teachers as well. “The whole wrap around here is two-fold: engineering the over 100 student experiments to be sent into space and to tap into the processes necessary to create STEAM learners,” Zielinski explained. “To do that, teachers need training so they can excite the students. A lot of teachers are not necessarily science, technology, engineering or math teachers, and these teachers tend to feel intimidated or shy away from teaching in these disciplines, like art, history or elementary school teachers. They really don’t have an engineering background, so two of the things we want to do is show them that what they teach relates to the technical fields and give them some of the basic engineering knowledge needed to help their students design experiments to fly in space. In short, we want to give them confidence!”
She continued, “When we show them how easy it is—and it really is very easy if our engineering is done right—they feel confident enough to teach their students how to design their experiments. That’s the key and one of the things that makes us so different from other programs. When they’re concentrating on STEM and not STEAM, they’re only focusing on things that are scientifically significant or interesting. We’re not. We’re saying it can be very, very simple. It can include some artwork, some music, anything. We encourage people to be bold and step out of the perceived norm and their comfort zone.”
Higher Level Education
The EIS Academy will serve not only elementary, middle and high school learners, but also university, doctorate and postdoctoral students as well. EIS will host competitions seeking experiments dedicated to advancing the state of the art in 10 areas. The contest teams will utilize and submit proposals within the Enterprise Centers for Excellence (ECE), where expert researchers and cutting-edge businesses will curate an extensive database of knowledge related to exciting topics such as space-based additive manufacturing, space-based solar power, stem cell research and more.
Zielinski explained that the additive manufacturing, space solar power and orbital space debris mitigation and remediation ECEs are already well developed. Two competitions are nearly ready to launch and will see students at the university and postdoc level participating with established NewSpace businesses to pursue some very challenging scientific concepts.
In the case of the space solar power ECE, hosted in partnership with Ohio University, SPACE Canada and the Canadian Space Society, the winning team will actually send an experiment aboard the NSS Enterprise that will test the ability to generate solar power in space, such as collecting sunlight aboard the spacecraft and delivering power wirelessly to a freeflyer for its mission orbiting Earth.
Eight of the projects that will serve as the basis for the Enterprise Centers for Excellence. (Image courtesy of EIS.)
In the case of the orbital space debris mitigation and remediation ECE, the team will work with Nicola Sarzi-Amadè and Global Aerospace Corporation to utilize the company’s Gossamer Orbit Lowering Device to deorbit debris in space.
Zielinski described an ECE as “a place where a wide variety of groups of people with the same interest and different disciplines can all come together and work together on that topic with the best information that we can get our hands on.” Features of the ECEs include:
A resource area populated with numerous papers that have all been vetted as the best resources associated with a given topic
A cyber library (“Cybrary”)
An online journal that publishes juried and approved research and student papers
An ephemeral board in which cross-curriculum visitors can present ideas related to the topic
A question-and-answer area with access to STEAM mentor
Ali the Artificial Intelligence
While students will be able to monitor the progress of their experiments aboard the NSS Enterprise, the complete EIS Academy will be made open to the public, with students and teachers anywhere able to rely on Ali as a personal tutor and mentor.
In many school systems around the world, students have new teachers with every grade level. In turn, the knowledge, interests and learning style of a student will have to be picked up by new teachers year after year. Teaching coursework for different student learning styles is difficult. Ali, however, will be able to accompany every student as they grow and act as a tool for teachers to address the needs of their classroom more quickly.
At the same time, students will also be able to access Ali on their own time. That way, any topic that isn’t addressed in class can be addressed by the AI. Additionally, Ali can direct the student to a teacher in the EIS Academy who can provide him or her additional topic information in greater depth.
Ali will be built by Value Spring Technology using the firm’s enterpriseMind platform, an AI capable of deciphering and contextualizing natural human language similar to the way that the human mind works. Thus, students and teachers will be able to speak with Ali naturally. More importantly, Ali will be able to adapt to the student, learning his or her needs and modifying the teaching style as the student develops. In an upcoming article, Bill Doyle, one of the inventors of enterpriseMind, will provide greater detail about exactly how the technology works.
3D Printing a Spacecraft
The design for the NSS Enterprise is no ordinary spacecraft. Chosen through a crowdsourcing campaign, the winning submission was from Stanley Von Medvey. The design is meant to be inspired by science fiction, and once it goes into orbit, it will be the first spacecraft with the name “Enterprise” flown in space. The spacecraft’s sci-fi geometry, however, is unlike any typical satellite or shuttle, opening up new manufacturing opportunities and engineering challenges.
The science fiction-inspired design for the NSS Enterprise was chosen through a crowdsourcing contest. (Image courtesy of EIS.)
Made In Space, famous for now installing two 3D printers aboard the International Space Station, has been selected as the prime contractor for the construction of the NSS Enterprise. The company will leverage its expertise with additive manufacturing to 3D print the airframe of the spacecraft. To do so, Made In Space will use a modular approach, breaking the design down into individual, components before printing them and assembling them into the complete NSS Enterprise.
This method will both allow the team to print the pieces of the spacecraft on a smaller 3D printer and give the EIS team the ability to configure payloads, including perishable experiments that will needed to be loaded into the NSS Enterprise just before launch.“Remember the game Tetris?” Zielinski asked. “That’s kind of how I envision the experiment modules inside the NSS Enterprise. They’re going to be different shapes and sizes, but they’re all going to fit very nicely and neatly together. Depending on the experiments that are going inside of them, the modules should be 3D printed and screwed together. The educators need to work with the engineers.”
The ability to 3D print a modular, satellite-style spacecraft will also act as a demonstrator for a new technology that Made In Space is developing for NASA, a process for 3D printing and assembling large-scale structures, like satellites, from the International Space Station. If Made In Space is able to 3D print the NSS Enterprise, which is estimated to measure 8 feet long and weigh 1,000 pounds, the firm may also be able to 3D print satellites aboard the International Space Station.
Made In Space Co-Founder and Chief Engineer Michael Snyder elaborated on how the EIS program relates to the activities of his firm, “Made In Space is currently exploring a number of methods for the microgravity additive manufacturing of structures that will ultimately be deployed in space from the ISS. While fabrication of the NSS Enterprise spacecraft will not take place aboard the ISS, the project will further demonstrate 3D printing as a viable method for manufacturing structures meant to survive the harsh environment of space.”
Flying the Orbiter
To get the NSS Enterprise into low-Earth orbit (LEO), EIS is currently in talks with private space companies to determine if the orbiter can be carried as a secondary payload on a commercial launch vehicle. If so, the spacecraft will be deployed into LEO and coast in free drift for most of its journey, though cold gas thrusters or gyros will be used to orient the orbiter as onboard experiments dictate, say to pick up video of the Earth for a geography class.
“One of the biggest issues, I think, is reentry,” explained Fred Becker, EIS chief engineer. Becker is a former NASA engineer who has worked on a dozen space missions, including the New Horizons Pluto mission. “A lot of that depends on the final design of the spacecraft, which is dependent on the type of launch vehicle we can get. We’re still trying to decide if the spacecraft will have more of a capsule shape or a space plane shape and whether or not it will feature a protective clamshell.”
A diagram depicting the mission of the NSS Enterprise. (Image courtesy of EIS.)
If EIS determines that the NSS Enterprise will more closely resemble a capsule, the physics of reentry are less complex. At a certain altitude, a parachute deploys and the capsule simply falls back to Earth. A spaceplane, on the other hand, would land more like the Space Shuttle, a longer, slower reentry with the spacecraft banking left and right before a parachute deploys and the NSS Enterprise coasts to its target on land.
For reentry, the spacecraft won’t be controlled from the ground, but through onboard sensing and a predetermined programming. Of course, the EIS crew, which is still scouting their mission control outpost, will be able to take over manual control if necessary, but Becker said that he hopes to program the spacecraft to execute a reentry program after it has been in orbit after a certain amount of time, at which point a kick motor will redirect it towards Earth.
EIS is working with partner company Terminal Velocity Aerospace, a subsidiary of satellite design company SpaceWorks Enterprises, to develop the ablative coating or clamshell that will protect the spacecraft during reentry. SpaceWorks, too, is in on the project and has helped the EIS team to draw up the preliminary physics calculations for the design of the NSS Enterprise.
Once EIS finds a launch provider and the $32 million necessary to begin construction on the spacecraft, SpaceWorks will finalize the designs and hand them off to Made In Space and asteroid mining company Deep Space Industries to build the orbiter.
Funding NewSpace Education
NSS Senior Vice President Bruce Pittman has watched the EIS program develop since it was adopted by the NSS early on. As the Chief System Engineer in the NASA Space Portal Office and the Emerging Space Office at the NASA Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley, Pittman has worked on countless NASA projects and played a key role in the commercialization of space.
About EIS, Pittman said, “The Enterprise In Space program is an exciting opportunity to simultaneously advance cutting edge technologies, while getting students from around the world engaged in STEAM and space education. The National Space Society is proud to have EIS as our flagship spaceflight program and we look forward to the remarkable results that will flow from its successful completion.”
Of course, to successfully complete its mission, EIS must obtain funding, which is a crucial variable in the ultimate design of the spacecraft, according to Alice Hoffman, EIS program manager. Hoffman has worked as project manager on such complex projects as the $6.2 billion expansion of Chicago O’Hare airport and the Chicago Bears’ $660 million Soldier Field.
“What’s different about this is that our project schedule and our engineering are based on the ability to afford it,” Hoffman said. “Our project schedule and everything else is tied to receiving sufficient donations to go forward with certain aspects of the project. You always work backwards from the goals of the client, and our goal is to get kids interested in studying STEAM by showing them the future of what is possible in space and what sorts of jobs they might have in the NewSpace economy. That doesn’t have to be an 8-foot ship. It could be a smaller ship. The bigger ship gives us the ability to fly more serious experiments, and we want to do that, but you have to be realistic about what you can afford.”
The amount of funding the program can obtain, then, is factored into the ultimate design of the spacecraft, something that was taken into account when approaching SpaceWorks for guidance. “We had a couple of questions we wanted to ask SpaceWorks,” Hoffman explained. “If we only leave the NSS Enterpriseup for a week or two, do we need solar panels or can we just use a battery to power the spacecraft and the payloads? They concluded that we would need solar panels—that the mass ratio would be better for sustaining an average 50 watts of load for the ship and the payload if we had solar panels, even for a one- or two-week mission.”
She continued, “The second question we asked was what would be the total mass of the NSS Enterpriseto support various payload masses. We were shooting for 300 pounds of payload, and on its preliminary estimate, SpaceWorks suggested that it would be about 1,100 pounds.”
This is where the funding comes into play: “But the answer is a curve showing mass versus payload. So, if we were to get a free launch on a vehicle that couldn’t take a spacecraft as big as the one we’re talking about or we couldn’t afford the entire project, we could scale it down and take only 200 pounds of payload, which would result in an overall smaller mass spacecraft.”
Of course, the goal is to realize the full potential of the NSS Enterprise, making it large enough to include the university-level experiments. To do so, EIS is in fundraising mode. The group is looking to obtain $20 donations from individuals, earning them virtual crew memberships on the spacecraft, as well as large donations from charitable organizations and corporations.
While $20 will get your name flown on a chip stored on the NSS Enterprise, $30 million will give you naming rights to the NSS Enterprise (Sponsored by You) and $10 million will allow you to name the artificial intelligence or choose her voice or visage. More importantly, what better way to demonstrate a commitment to education that will be a game changer than by funding the foundation of NewSpace education?
Deep Space Industries announced today its plans to fly the world’s first commercial interplanetary mining mission. Prospector-1™ will fly to and rendezvous with a near-Earth asteroid, and investigate the object to determine its value as a source of space resources. This mission is an important step in the company’s overall plans to harvest and supply in-space resources to support the growing space economy.
“Deep Space Industries has worked diligently to get to this point, and now we can say with confidence that we have the right technology, the right team and the right plan to execute this historic mission,” said Rick Tumlinson, chairman of the board and co-founder of Deep Space Industries. “Building on our Prospector-X mission, Prospector-1 will be the next step on our way to harvesting asteroid resources.”
Click image for larger version
Recently, Deep Space Industries and its partner, the government of Luxembourg, announced plans to build and fly Prospector-X™, an experimental mission to low-Earth orbit that will test key technologies needed for low-cost exploration spacecraft. This precursor mission is scheduled to launch in 2017. Then, before the end of this decade, Prospector-1 will travel beyond Earth’s orbit to begin the first space mining exploration mission.
“Our Prospector missions will usher in a new era of low cost space exploration” said Grant Bonin, chief engineer at DSI. “We are developing Prospector both for our own asteroid mining ambitions, but also to bring an extremely low-cost, yet high-performance exploration spacecraft to the market. At a tiny fraction of what traditional custom-built space probes cost, the Prospector platform has the versatility and ruggedness of design to become the new standard for low cost space exploration.”
Prospector-1 is a small spacecraft (50 kg when fueled) that strikes the ideal balance between cost and performance. In addition to the radiation-tolerant payloads and avionics, all DSI spacecraft use the Comet™ water propulsion system, which expels superheated water vapor to generate thrust. Water will be the first asteroid mining product, so the ability to use water as propellant will provide future DSI spacecraft with the ability to refuel in space.
“During the next decade, we will begin the harvest of space resources from asteroids,” said Daniel Faber, CEO at Deep Space Industries. “We are changing the paradigm of business operations in space, from one where our customers carry everything with them, to one in which the supplies they need are waiting for them when they get there.”
The destination asteroid will be chosen from a group of top candidates selected by the world renowned team of asteroid experts at Deep Space Industries. When it arrives at the target, the Prospector-1 spacecraft will map the surface and subsurface of the asteroid, taking visual and infrared imagery and mapping overall water content, down to approximately meter-level depth. When this initial science campaign is complete, Prospector-1 will use its water thrusters to attempt touchdown on the asteroid, measuring the target’s geophysical and geotechnical characteristics.
“The ability to locate, travel to, and analyze potentially rich supplies of space resources is critical to our plans,” continued Faber. “This means not just looking at the target, but actually making contact.”
Along with customer missions already in progress, such as the cluster of small satellites being built by DSI for HawkEye 360, the Prospector missions will demonstrate the company’s simple, low-cost, but high-performance approach to space exploration. The Prospector platform is now available to government and commercial explorers interested in developing sophisticated, yet low-cost missions of their own.
“Prospector-1 is not only the first commercial interplanetary mission, it is also an important milestone in our quest to open the frontier,” said Tumlinson. “By learning to ‘live off the land’ in space, Deep Space Industries is ushering in a new era of unlimited economic expansion.”
More detailed information about the Prospector program, including the Prospector-X (eXperimental) and Prospector-1 missions, and the DSI technologies that are making these missions possible, can be found on the company’s website: DeepSpaceIndustries.com/missions
By Mark Hopkins Chair of the Executive Committee, National Space Society
The National Space Society (NSS) and its precursor organization, the L-5 Society, have been promoting Space Settlement since 1975. Our ultimate goal is nothing less than the settlement of space and the use of the vast resources of space for the dramatic betterment of humanity. This goal has been moving toward the mainstream at an accelerating pace.
A discussion of recent progress (up until May 2015) can be found in “We Are Winning” (Ad Astra, Fall 2015). Since then the pace has continued to accelerate. Both SpaceX and Blue Origin, using only non-government funds, have returned launch vehicles to Earth for reuse, signaling an imminent reduction in space transportation costs. Space Settlement is the goal of both of these companies. The Space Exploration Development and Settlement Act was introduced in Congress on March 16, 2016. If passed, the SEDS Act would make Space Settlement an official goal of NASA (see “Victory: The Vision of NSS May Soon Become an Official Objective of NASA”). Most recently, Elon Musk, head of SpaceX, announced his company’s plans to send the first human mission to Mars as early as 2024. Musk also announced that he will detail SpaceX’s plans to settle Mars during the International Astronautical Congress in late September 2016. This announcement is likely to cause the goal of Space Settlement to make a major jump toward the mainstream.
NSS has been using the term Space Settlement rather than Space Colonization since our beginning in 1975. All of the other organizations in today’s Space Movement were founded after us and almost all followed our lead, using the term Space Settlement. This was done because in 1975 the word colonization had negative connotations. Much of the world was made up of former colonies that resented their former status.
However, the rapid move of Space Settlement toward the mainstream in the last few years has shown that society outside of Space Movement circles, and particularly outside of space circles, prefers the term Space Colonization. The recent hit movie The Martian provides an example. NSS considers the two terms Space Settlement and Space Colonization to be synonymous. Despite the 40-plus years of the Space Movement using the term Space Settlement, society may well push us to using the term Space Colonization in the future.
The Space Movement began in 1975. Space Colonization is its goal. (For articles about the Movement, see “The Space Movement” at www.nss.org/spacemovement). The advancement of this goal toward the mainstream is energizing the Movement. The greatest obstacle for the Space Movement has been credibility. Time and time again we have convinced influential people of the importance of Space Colonization only to have them become disenchanted after talking to space “experts” who have questioned its credibility. The ongoing destruction of this obstacle is creating an environment favorable to the explosive growth of the Space Movement.
Rapid progress toward convincing society as a whole of the importance of Space Colonization to the human future is now possible. NSS can reenergize the belief in the American dream, an ever-improving dramatic betterment of humanity, and a hopeful future for all.
The National Space Society (NSS) is pleased to announce the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding with space historian and author Rod Pyle (photo at right) to write a new book entitled Space 2.0. NSS plans to use the finished volume as a primary tool for outreach and STEM/STEAM educational efforts, as well as supporting the organization in the broader marketplace.
This new book will explore current efforts in space, and then, looking through the eyes of industry and government leaders, embark on a compelling narrative about the future development, exploration and settlement of the final frontier. Intended interviewees include Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos, Neil deGrasse Tyson, Buzz Aldrin, Andy Weir, Lori Garver, and Sir Richard Branson, among others.
Space 2.0 will be published in oversize format, lavishly illustrated with approximately 300 full-color images, and competitively priced to assure maximum accessibility. The book is currently scheduled to be published early next year by BenBella Books and distributed by IngramPerseus to an international audience.
For more information about how you can support this important new project, please contact Susan Holden Martin, MBA, J.D., at email@example.com.
Eileen Collins was the first woman to command a Space Shuttle mission and the first astronaut to address a 2016 political convention. Her 4-minute address is above, pointing out that “nations that lead on the frontier lead in the world.”
Eric Berger, senior space editor at Ars Technica, blogged:
Here’s what Collins really missed on Wednesday night…. Probably the most exciting spaceflight development of the last decade or so has been the successful pursuit of reusable rockets by SpaceX and Blue Origin. This low-cost rocketry is what will ultimately make America greater in space…. The reality is that the best way to “lead on the frontier” in the 21st century is not through flags and footprints, but rather by sending people into space to stay, in a sustainable way, with the eventual aim of making space profitable.
Disclaimer: The National Space Society does not endorse any political party or candidate. In her speech, Eileen Collins also did not endorse any political party or candidate.
Last year National Space Society Board of Directors member Al Globus released three pre-prints that together suggested a radically easier path to space settlement. A major part of this is the discovery that space settlements in Low Earth Orbit very close to the equator (ELEO) will experience far less radiation than any other location—so little that dedicated shielding may be unnecessary. This massively reduces the mass of space settlement designs (roughly two orders of magnitude).
The paper focused on radiation has now been substantially revised incorporating information from a number of NCRP (National Council on Radiological Protection and Measurement) publications. The bottom line recommendations have not changed, however. This paper can be found at:
“Orbital Space Settlement Radiation Shielding,” Al Globus and Joe Strout, preprint, June 2016. The major result of this paper is that settlements in low (~500 km) Earth equatorial orbits may not require any radiation shielding at all based on a careful analysis of requirements and extensive simulation of radiation effects. This radically reduces system mass and has profound implications for space settlement as extraterrestrial mining and manufacturing are no longer on the critical path to the first settlements, although they will be essential in later stages. It also means the first settlements can evolve from space stations, hotels, and retirement communities in relatively small steps.
These changes are also reflected in:
“Space Settlement: An Easier Way,” by Al Globus, Stephen Covey, and Daniel Faber, June 2016 describes a relatively easy, incremental path to free space settlement by taking advantage of very low radiation levels in Equatorial Low Earth Orbit (ELEO) and higher rotation rates. Low levels of radiation in ELEO may permit settlements with little or no radiation shielding. Higher rotation rates permit much smaller settlements. Together this reduces settlement design mass by two to three orders of magnitude and places early settlements very close to Earth, radically reducing the difficulty of building the first space settlements and making launch from Earth practical. The mass model used in this paper is available here as an Excel spreadsheet.
For completeness, here is the third paper although there have been no revisions:
“Space Settlement Population Rotation Tolerance,” Al Globus and Theodore Hall, preprint, June 2015. This paper reviews the literature to find that space settlement residents and visitors can tolerate at least four, and probably six, rotations per minute to achieve 1g of artificial gravity. This means settlements can be radically smaller, and thus easier to build, than previously believed.
The National Space Society congratulates Dr. Alan Stern on winning the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal. This award is the highest honor that NASA can bestow. NSS has also awarded one of our highest honors to Dr. Stern, the NSS Wernher von Braun Award, which he received at our International Space Development Conference last May in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Dr. Stern was Principal Investigator of NASA’s New Horizons mission to Pluto. “Leading New Horizons has been the greatest honor of my lifetime, but it’s important to recognize so many others who also contributed to the success of this mission,” said Stern. “I dedicate this award to the 2,500 men and women who worked so hard to build, launch, and fly New Horizons across the solar system to explore Pluto and its system of moons.”
Portrait of Dr. Alan Stern, associate vice president of the Space Science and Engineering Division at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and the Principal Investigator of NASA’s New Horizons mission to Pluto. Image courtesy NASA/Bill Ingalls.
With a successful launch on July 18 at 12:45 AM EST, 2016 from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, SpaceX achieved several dramatic milestones on the Commercial Resupply Services 9 mission (CRS-9). In addition to supplies and experiments in the pressurized part of the Dragon, an unpressurized “trunk” houses the 1,028 lb (467 kilogram) International Docking Adaptor (IDA), manufactured by Boeing. The IDA, once attached to the International Space Station (ISS) will be the connecting point for Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner and SpaceX’s Crewed Dragon 2 spacecraft as they bring American astronauts to the ISS on American-built and operated vehicles for the first time since the end of the Space Shuttle program.
Experiments being lofted to the ISS by CRS-9 include a Biomolecule Sequencer that will attempt for the first time DNA sequencing in micro-gravity and a new type of heat exchanger being developed by NASA. CASIS/ISS National Laboratory projects include OsteoOmics, which will use magnetic levitation to increase our understanding of the bone loss that results from osteoporosis, and HeartCells, a study of the effects of microgravity on the human heart, which could improve treatments for heart disease on Earth.
“The CRS-9 delivery of IDA is on the critical path to our future in space,” said Dale Skran, NSS Executive Vice President. “SpaceX continues to break new ground in lowering the cost of going into space, and the return to launch site landing of the first stage is key to eventually lowering the cost of spaceflight. With the successful installation of IDA on the ISS, America will be ready for the next epoch of human spaceflight based on commercial vehicles.”
International Docking Adaptor (IDA) ready for installation in the Dragon trunk [courtesy NASA]
On June 19, 2016 Blue Origin re-used its sub-orbital New Shepard booster on a flight to the Karman line (the edge of space) for the fourth time and returned the rocket to its launch site for further re-use while demonstrating the reliability of the capsule parachute system in the case of a failed parachute. “Competition like that seen between Blue Origin and SpaceX is the key to rapid progress in space,” said Bruce Pittman, NSS Senior Vice President. “Today’s launch of IDA to the ISS and the successful RTLS [return to launch site] landing is a direct result of the competitive, commercial nature of CRS and Commercial Crew, and NSS advocates extending these types of programs into cis-lunar space.”
Lowering the cost of access to space is fundamental to NSS’s vision of our future there (see www.nss.org/settlement/roadmap) and today’s events have brought that future materially closer.
The National Space Society (NSS) congratulates the Boeing Company on reaching its 100th anniversary, and doing so while continuing to be the world leader in the aerospace business.
NSS acknowledges and greatly appreciates the tremendous role that Boeing and its heritage companies McDonnell Douglas, North American Aviation, Hughes, Jeppesen, and Stearman has played in the development of all U.S. human spacecraft that have ever flown: from Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo to the Space Shuttle and now the International Space Station.
Thanks to Boeing, humanity is now truly living and working in space.
But today – 50 years into the Space Age – the number of people living in space is still less than 10. The NSS vision is to see thousands and eventually millions of people living and working in thriving communities beyond the Earth, and harvesting the vast resources of space for the dramatic betterment of humanity.
NSS was therefore very happy to view the recent Boeing “You Just Wait” commercial (above), and to hear the words of Boeing CEO Dennis Muilenburg, who said Friday, “In another 100 years, we might make daily trips to space, fly across the globe in less than an hour, or receive unlimited clean power from solar satellites.” As the largest and oldest non-profit advocate for civil and commercial human spaceflight and space solar power, NSS believes that Boeing is up to the challenge and that all of these achievements will come to pass, and well before its 200th anniversary.
NSS applauds the dedication and hard work that Boeing is putting into the construction and support of the International Space Station, the amazing operational success of the reusable X-37B space plane, the return of American astronauts to space via the CST-100 Starliner, and its portion of the NASA Space Launch System. NSS wishes all of Boeing the best of success on these and other endeavors.
Over the 42 year history of NSS, numerous Boeing employees have volunteered to serve as NSS Directors, Officers, and other leaders. They have brought with them Boeing Company core values of dedication and high ethical and work standards. This has had a positive impact on the evolution of NSS extending even to its guiding principles of human rights, ethics, and pragmatism.
NSS looks forward to continuing its working relationship with Boeing during the next 100 years. From all of us to all of Boeing: Happy 100th and Ad Astra!