You are cordially invited to join the 2016 Annual ASD/NSS/SFF August Home District Blitz congressional action event. This event supports the 2016 Alliance for Space Development (ASD) annual campaign. You can expect topics being pushed to include items like support for the Space Exploration, Development, and Settlement Act (H.R. 4752), a Low Cost Access to Space Prize, full funding for Commercial Crew, and supporting a gapless transition from the ISS to commercial space stations. During the blitz, local groups will arrange to visit their Congressperson’s home district offices during the August recess. Signup is via http://goo.gl/forms/40pGqMuGcU1n6aiB2. Please sign up immediately and follow the directions on the NSS legislative page at www.nss.org/legislative to set up an appointment with your Representative and Senators.
ASD includes groups like the Space Frontier Foundation, the National Space Society, the Lifeboat Foundation, The Mars Foundation, The Mars Society, the Space Development Foundation, the Space Development Steering Committee, the Space Tourism Society, Students for the Exploration and Development of Space, Students on Capitol Hill, the Tea Party in Space, and the Texas Space Alliance. You can find out more about ASD at www.allianceforspacedevelopment.org.
The National Space Society celebrates the life and contributions of a visionary champion of the commercial space industry and human space settlement, the Honorable Patricia Grace Smith. Ms. Smith unexpectedly passed away on June 5th, after quietly fighting pancreatic cancer over the last year.
“The commercial space industry owes a huge debt to Patti Grace Smith whose years of determined and well-reasoned advocacy combined with her natural charm and grace won over many converts in government and fostered the birth of a new industry. There might not be a commercial space flight industry were it not for Patti’s leadership,” said Bruce Pittman, Senior Operating Officer of the National Space Society.
Ms. Smith served her country for almost three decades, including eleven years as the Associate Administrator for the Federal Aviation Administration’s Office of Commercial Space Transportation. She was appointed to this office shortly after it became part of the FAA and was instrumental in creating policies and guiding the FAA’s regulatory efforts in a manner that was supportive of the emerging commercial space flight industry
After retiring from the FAA in 2008, Ms. Smith became an important consultant to the commercial space industry and was the chair of the commercial space committee of the NASA Advisory Council until 2014. She was also the vice-chair of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board of the National Academies and a Member-at-Large of the Board of Directors of the Space Foundation.
NSS is following the path opened by Patti Smith in one of our initiatives called the Space Exploration, Development and Settlement Act of 2016. This bill, just introduced in Congress, will change the NASA charter to enable NASA to do more. To help with this effort, citizens can take action here.
Patti’s family has asked that donations be made in her name to:
American Cancer Society
800-227-2345 action 2
PO Box 22718
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73123-1718
Over 1000 visitors were introduced to the ambitious Enterprise In Space (EIS) program at Space Day recently held June 4 at the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum (NASM). NASM houses artifacts of important milestones along the path of aviation and aeronautical development.
Invited to be among the many firsts of historical space achievements celebrated at Space Day, the EIS team was thrilled to participate in collaboration with the Smithsonian Science Education Center (SSEC). This year’s event drew some 30,000 visitors from around the world and included a presentation by astronaut Terry Virts.
Visitors at the EIS booth were excited to learn about its educational mission and the differences between the EIS program and some of the historical and inspirational missions of the past. National Space Society’s EIS mission includes many important ‘firsts:’
- The first spacecraft bearing the name Enterprise to orbit Earth
- The first Sci-Fi inspired design of a spacecraft.
- The first to converse with student teams in natural language while in orbit using an artificial intelligence just like the Star Trek™ computer assisted their crews with experiments and analyses.
- The first non-profit organization to launch and return student experiments free of charge, allowing children of all socio-economic levels to participate.
- Students work in cross-cultural teams to convince judges that their experiment should earn the right to be among the 100+ experiments flown.
- Likely the first 3-D printed spacecraft (aero-frame and skin) to orbit and return to Earth.
- The first to promote and encourage liberal and fine arts as part of the experimental design.
“The collaboration between SSEC and EIS will promote authentic STEM experiences, a focus of the Federal Committee on STEM Education,” says Carol O’Donnell, Director of SSEC. She captivated students at an enjoining booth in an interactive activity involving an eclipse and moon phase demonstration, one of the lessons found in SSEC’s intermediate astronomy course. In a conversation discussing how authentic learning experiences are increasing the rigor and raising the bar of education, Dr. O’Donnell posed the question, “How much more authentic can you get than with the EIS program!”
Authentic learning engagement is a top priority of EIS and will be achieved through the student experiment design challenges. At Space Day, visitors had a chance to experience some lessons in the web-based EIS Academy (K-12) and cutting-edge challenges in the university level Enterprise Centers for Excellence. The LEO Art Challenge and Trek-A-Sat activities were a hit and can be found at www.eisacademy.org.
Visitors showed outstanding enthusiasm while interacting with EIS and SSEC representatives, resulting in Doug Baldwin, Program Director of Educational Services at NASM, noting that he “looks forward to working on future collaborations and events with EIS and SSEC.”
“EIS is delighted and honored to participate in Space Day and meet the dedicated people who’s hard work make this event possible year after year. As previous generations were inspired by the Apollo program, EIS hopes to inspire the next generation,” said Alice Hoffman, Program Manager of EIS.
Enterprise in Space is inspiring today’s children for tomorrow’s future.
By Gloria Lloyd
Since the International Space Development Conference will be in St. Louis in May, 2017, it is appropriate to learn about the St. Louis connection with space.
“This is a frontier good for millions of years. The only time remotely comparable was when Columbus discovered a whole new world.” – James S. McDonnell in an interview with TIME Magazine, 1967
“Spring break in Ibiza or Miami? I’d rather be in St. Louis, with the future.” – Will.I.Am at the FIRST Robotics World Championships at the Edward Jones Dome, April 26, 2014
St. Louis first became a city of exploration when it was just a river town on the edge of a vast expanse of unknown wilderness, where Lewis and Clark set out to explore the West. So it is fitting that St. Louis has played a key role in both aviation and space history, designing, engineering and manufacturing the planes and spaceships that some of the world’s greatest explorers used to travel around the world – and out of it.
St. Louis first secured its spot in engineering history in 1867 when James Eads connected Missouri and Illinois with the world’s first steel bridge, the Eads Bridge (up to that time, steel was not used as a construction material, and no bridges had ever been built across a river as wide as the Mississippi). Skeptics told Eads such a contraption could never work. Andrew Carnegie kicked off the modern steel industry, and America’s Industrial Age, when he saw how difficult it was to get steel to St. Louis to build the bridge. Before the Arch, the Eads Bridge became an iconic symbol of St. Louis, compared to the Eiffel Tower in Paris and called the seventh wonder of the modern world. The bridge is still in use today, for cars, pedestrians andMetroLink light rail trains.
The St. Louis airport, Lambert Field, has a rich history of amazing experimental flights and of innovation – it was a key link in the first transcontinental air-rail service, the first airport with an air traffic control system and housed manufacturing facilities that produced the United States Navy’s first jet fighter – and America’s first spaceship.
Although Charles Lindbergh is undoubtedly the headliner of St. Louis aviation history, the city already had an esteemed list of record-holders even before his flight, including a long-held record for thelongest hot-air balloon flight, set in 1859 by John Wise on a flight between St. Louis and Henderson, N.Y. At the 1904 World’s Fair – thebiggest spectacle the world had ever seen up to that point – aeronauts dazzled spectators with the first-ever public powered flights, of airships. Theodore Roosevelt became the first president to fly here in 1911, and military installation Jefferson Barracks saw the first parachute jump from a plane in 1912.
But it was Lindbergh’s first transatlantic solo flight in 1927 – and the St. Louis spirit that got him there – that changed the course of the 20th century. When Lindbergh wanted to do what no one had done before – fly nonstop across an ocean – it was nine entrepreneurs in St. Louis, where Lindbergh lived and flew airmail flights, who funded his unlikely transatlantic dream. He honored them by naming his plane the Spirit of St. Louis, and he successfully flew between New York and Paris (after a record-setting long-distance stopover in St. Louis) in 1927.
As the headquarters of the McDonnell Aircraft Corporation from its inception in the 1930s, as well as many other aviation companies that formed in the wake of Lindbergh’s successful flight and the resulting aviation mania, St. Louis produced many legendary civilian and military aircraft – including, as one example, the 1929 Curtiss Robin used by “Wrong Way” Corrigan for his famous flight across the Atlantic, and the St. Louis Robin that set a world endurance record.
Even before the Soviet Union launched Sputnikin 1957, James S. McDonnell tasked 45 engineers in St. Louis to start working on the first manned spaceship. That foresight made St. Louis ground zero for America’s first human spaceflight program, Project Mercury, and McDonnellmanufactured 20 space capsules to send the first Americans – and chimpanzees – into space, and much of the simulation and training America’s first astronauts underwent happened in St. Louis. Through the Mercury program, America sent its first man to space, Alan Shepard, and John Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in the Friendship 7 capsule, now on display at the Smithsonian alongside theSpirit of St. Louis.
“It is essential that the United States be first, and I can imagine no action, no adventure, which is more essential and more exciting.” – President John F. Kennedy, in remarks to McDonnell employees working on America’s first spaceship following his visit to St. Louis to see the Mercury space capsule in September 1962.
“At the president’s departure, he stated that he was greatly impressed by what he saw in St. Louis.” – newscaster in historic newsreel footage, recounting Kennedy’s visit.
NASA’s follow-up program, Project Gemini, saw the second American in space, astronaut Gus Grissom, arrive in St. Louis to assist McDonnell engineers in building their next spaceship. Gemini astronauts spent time in St. Louis at McDonnell on training simulators for their missions.
In all, 10 manned Gemini capsules were made in St. Louis and launched from Cape Canaveral in 1965 and 1966 as a runup to the Apollo program, which had the lofty goal of landing Americans on the Moon by the end of the 1960s. Gemini astronauts took some of the first spacewalks, stayed in the spacecraft long enough to reach the Moon and perfected rendezvous and docking in preparation for the eventual Moon landing.
During the successes of the Gemini program and just past the heyday of Route 66 – when a generation of travelers traveled to St. Louis to “get their kicks” on the Mother Road – the Gateway Arch was erected on the downtown riverfront, serving as the city’s foremost symbol of its status as the Gateway to the West. It is America’s largest man-made monument.
Although NASA’s space shuttles were not entirely manufactured in St. Louis like their spaceship predecessors had been, St. Louisplayed an important role in the space shuttle program. NASA later noted that native St. Louisan and McDonnell Douglas engineer John Yardley, who helped design and develop the shuttle while at McDonnell and then headed the entire program for NASA, was “as responsible as any individual for getting the Space Shuttle program off the ground.” McDonnell Douglas also manufactured the aft propulsion pods that helped the shuttle get into orbit and turn once it reached space. As a mark of appreciation for McDonnell Douglas’s impact on the space shuttle program, NASA flew the first space shuttle, theEnterpise prototype, to St. Louis. Today, the most storied of the space shuttles,Discovery, is housed at the National Air and Space Museum’s Udvar-Hazy Center in the James S. McDonnell Hangar, a fitting nod to McDonnell’s enduring and continuing contributions to America’s space program.
Nine current or former astronauts were born in, raised or went to school in Missouri, including Eileen Collins, the first female spaceship commander. McDonnell Douglas engineer Charlie Walker was the first non-government astronaut to fly in space, during the space shuttle program. Sandra Magnus, from St. Louis suburb Belleville, Ill., flew on the final space shuttle flight in 2011. Dick Richards flew four space shuttle flights. Tom Akers flew four space shuttle flights, including the maiden flight of Endeavour, and is now a professor at nearby Missouri University of Science and Technology in Rolla,Mo. Other Missouri and Illinois native astronauts include active astronaut Bob Behnken of St. Ann, who has flown in space twice and is currently the Chief Astronaut, Janet Kavandi, who is active and has flown on three space shuttle flights, Linda Godwin andSteven Nagel, who are married and both now professors at the University of Missouri at Columbia,Scott Altman of central Illinois and Michael Hopkins, who recently returned from the International Space Station, after tweeting a picture of St. Louis from space.
Since St. Louis was at the forefront of aviation and America’s space program, it comes as no surprise that it has also played a key role in the emergence of commercial spaceflight. In 2004, at a ceremony held at the St. Louis Science Center, the St. Louis-based X-Prize Foundation awardedits $10 million Ansari X-Prize to SpaceShipOnefor the first successful private spaceflight.
Today, St. Louis continues its longtime legacy of exploration as an aerospace hub, serving as the headquarters of Boeing’s $33 billion Defense, Space and Security Division, with 58,000 employees worldwide – a combined division of the company that emerged after the 1997 merger of Boeing, then based in Seattle and the world’s largest aircraft manufacturer, with St. Louis-based McDonnell Douglas, then the world’s second-largest aircraft manufacturer. The combined company now gets 45 percent of all American military contracts and designs and engineers and manufactures some of the most sophisticated aircraft ever seen.
Three military jets, the F-15 Eagle, the E-18 Growler and the F-18 Hornet, are manufactured in St. Louis, and military operations and logistics around the world are commanded from the Department of Defense’s mobility and transportation hub at Scott Air Force Base. St. Louis is also home to Boeing Phantom Works, which is Boeing’s cutting-edge, classified military technology prototyping division and manufactures cutting-edge aircraft in St. Louis under a veil of secrecy.
After the retirement of the space shuttle and completion of the International Space Station, NASA’s focus has turned to commercial spaceflight to take cargo and supplies to the astronauts that are now a permanent presence on the space station, with an eye toward moving out of low-earth orbit to land humans on an asteroid and then Mars. During this transition, St. Louis still remains at the forefront of space: Boeing engineers in St. Louis are designing and building parts of Boeing’s Crew Space Transportation-100 (CST-100) capsule that, along with SpaceX’s Dragon capsule and Sierra Nevada’s Dream Chaserspaceplane, is one of NASA’s top contenders to ferry America’s astronauts to space for the Commercial Crew Program, NASA’s new commercial spaceflight program and partnership.
Meanwhile, scientists at Washington University in St. Louis have taken the lead scientific roles in the Mars Opportunity rover mission, and many scientists right here in St. Louis are currentlyconducting groundbreaking scientific research on Mars in collaboration with Caltech’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory on the Mars Curiosity rover mission.
Oh, and did we mention that Apollo 13 flight director Gene Kranz (“Failure Is Not an Option”), graduated from St. Louis University’s Parks College of Engineering, Aviation and Technology? In addition to Washington University (which has had 22 Nobel Laureates) and SLU, St. Louis is a university town where many colleges and universities are currently training future stars of space and science, even before the debut of a newly-formed aerospace consortium among community colleges and universities. Every day, children take field trips and simulate missions to space at the St. LouisChallenger Learning Center. St. Louis also hosts the FIRST Robotics World Championships every year – where teams of the world’s smartest high school students work together to build robots to compete in a challenge that changes every year.
St. Louisans continue to witness aviation history – in 2013, the first solar-powered airplane, Solar Impulse, stopped in St. Louis on its first cross-country flight to follow in Lindbergh’s footsteps (watch it land at Lambert Field in a time-lapse video here). And on the silver screen, the plane-themed movie Up in the Air filmed in St. Louis.
Since St. Louis has played – and plays – such an esteemed role in America’s space program, it is fitting that one of the world’s few – if not only- space-themed hotels can be found right here on the world-famous Delmar Loop: the Moonrise Hotel, built by local developer (and space enthusiast) Joe Edwards. Appropriately for St. Louis, the Moonrise’s rooftop bar features the world’s largest man-made moon, eight feet in diameter.
Visitors to St. Louis have the opportunity to see some of the city’s space history through exhibits on display at the St. Louis Science Center and the James S. McDonnell Planetarium, one of the premier facilities in the country for space education. A Mercury and Gemini capsule manufactured in St. Louis (like all Mercury and Gemini capsules were) are on display at the Science Center and planetarium, which are connected by a skybridge over Interstate 64.
Exploration buffs can also find the replica Spirit of St. Louis used in the movie about Lindbergh’s flight hanging from the ceiling at the Missouri History Museum, also in Forest Park. At times, the History Museum has extensiveCharles Lindbergh exhibits, since Lindbergh chose to donate his papers, artifacts and memorabilia from his storied career in aviation to the museum. The museum also features many St. Louis aviation artifacts and special exhibits.
The Creve Coeur Spirit of St. Louis Airport hosts a museum that displays one of the largest collections of vintage aircraft in the country. The Boeing Prologue Room is a museum of McDonnell Douglas and Boeing history that is open to the public in the summer.
The Greater St. Louis Air and Space Museum features many McDonnell Douglas aircraft and is located in a historic hangar at the St. Louis Downtown Airport in Cahokia, Ill., which was a stop of almost all the notable early aviators, including Lindbergh and Amelia Earhart.
One of Lindbergh’s iconic planes – donated by Lindbergh himself – hangs in the terminal at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport.
by Christine Nobbe, EdS, NBCT
ISDC® 2017 Conference Chair
St. Louis Union Station Hotel, “the grandest station in the Nation,” is the chosen site for the 2017 International Space Development Conference® because of its historic significance, beauty, and convenient location. The St. Louis Union Station website explains the historic significance:
“St. Louis Union Station, once the largest and busiest passenger rail terminal in the world, is now one of America’s great historic destinations. Union Station first opened in 1894, but ceased operation as an active train terminal in 1978. Union Station reopened in August of 1985 as the largest adaptive re-use project in the United States. Today, this 122 year-old National Historic Landmark of unmatched beauty and elegance is home to the 539-room St. Louis Union Station Hotel – a DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel, a conference center, shops and restaurants, a lake and plaza for festivals, concerts and other special events. And, of course, the stunning Grand Hall is a destination in its own rite.”
For those who “geek out” on railroad history or architecture, St. Louis Union Station is a treasure trove. The website states, “St. Louis architect and former railroader, Theodore C. Link, designed three main areas: the Headhouse, the Midway, and the Train Shed. The Headhouse contained the Terminal Hotel, ticket offices, waiting rooms, a restaurant, and offices for the Pullman and Terminal Railroad Association Companies. The Midway was the covered transfer area for passengers [and will be the ISDC Exhibit Midway]. The Train Shed was a large, roofed area covering the loading platforms and track.
On September 1, 1894 St. Louis Union Station opened as the largest, most beautiful terminal in the United States. This enormous project was built at the cost of $6.5 million. The gem of this new Station was the Grand Hall with its gold leaf, Romanesque arches, 65-foot barrel vaulted ceiling and stained glass windows. The most magnificent of these stained glass windows is the ‘Allegorical Window’ which is majestically framed by the famous ‘Whispering Arch.’
Just beyond the Head house was the Midway, which was the midway point where friends bid farewell or welcomed home visitors from across the nation and around the world. In its heyday (as shown in image) in the mid 1940’s, the Midway was the spot where over 100,000 passengers a day traversed on their way to or from a train. The platform area was covered by an enormous single-span train shed designed by George H. Pegram [now called the Pegram Room]. This was not only one of the largest train sheds ever built, but it also covered the greatest number of tracks. After World War II, the general public began choosing other forms of transportation. In 1976, this magnificent station was designated a National Historic Landmark. Finally, on October 31, 1978, the last train pulled out of St. Louis Union Station.”
NSS and St. Louis Space Frontier are delighted to host the International Space Development Conference® at Union Station May 25-29, 2017. It’s a bit too early to make your room reservations at the hotel, but you can register for the conference now! Visit ISDC.nss.org/2017 to register at the very reasonable early bird prices.
St. Louis Union Station Image: Dustin Batt (Wikipedia)
The Grand Hall image: Wikipedia
The Midway image: Charles O’Rear, 1941-, Photographer (NARA record: 3403717) Record creator – Environmental Protection Agency. (12/02/1970 – )
Information about St. Louis Union Station: www.stlouisunionstation.com
Find Your Spirit of Exploration and Discovery postcard: Maggie Duckworth, 2016
Wikipedia article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_Station_(St._Louis)
BEAM was pressurized May 28 on the International Space Station, where it will remain attached for a two-year test period.
The module measured just over 7 feet long and just under 7.75 feet in diameter in its packed configuration. BEAM now measures more than 13 feet long and about 10.5 feet in diameter to create 565 cubic feet of habitable volume. It weighs approximately 3,000 pounds.
Leak checks are being performed on BEAM to ensure its structural integrity. Hatch opening and NASA astronaut Jeff Williams’ first entrance into BEAM will take place about a week after leak checks are complete.
BEAM is an example of NASA’s increased commitment to partnering with industry to enable the growth of the commercial use of space. The project is co-sponsored by NASA’s Advanced Exploration Systems Division and Bigelow Aerospace.
Expandable habitats are designed to take up less room on launch but provide greater volume for living and working in space once expanded. This first test of an expandable module will allow investigators to gauge how well the habitat performs and specifically, how well it protects against solar radiation, space debris and the temperature extremes of space.
For more information about BEAM, visit: www.nasa.gov/beam.